News

26.10.2016

C O N T E N T S, No. 10, 2016

Êiëüêiñòü ïåðåãëÿäiâ: 1111

FINANCES.  TAXES.  CREDIT


UDC 336.1

V. P.  K U D R Y A S H O V,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Head of the Department of Public Finances,
SRFI “Academy of Financial Management”
(Kyiv)

©  Kudryashov Vasyl’ Pavlovych, 2016;
e-mail: kvp.kudrya@gmail.com.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF IMF ON QUESTIONS OF THE FISCAL POLICY AND THEIR ACCOUNT IN UKRAINE
Summary

The analysis of risks of the implementation of Ukraine’s public budget is performed, and the tendencies in the dynamics of its indicators are determined. It is concluded that the risks of the balance of revenues and expenditures of the budget remain rather sharp. The collaboration of Ukraine and IMF on the problems of fiscal policy is directed to their restriction. It has two-sided character and is not reduced to the mechanical execution of the proposed recommendations by a state-recipient. The main attention is paid to the fiscal consolidation, rationalization of the financial operations of power bodies with state’s targeted funds and state’s corporations.
The conclusion is drawn that the aim of the reformation should be not only a reduction of budget expenditures, but the attainment of their more admissible volumes relative to the revenues. For this purpose, it is necessary to reconsider the functions of power bodies, enhancement of the efficiency of the budget resource use, orientation of the fiscal policy onto the economic growth acceleration, and ensuring the financial stability.
It is recommended to introduce some changes in the structure of public expenditures, to limit the distribution of expenditures under the pressing of a lobbying, to decrease the shadow operations, and to decrease the budget subsidies and tax preferences, which have no sufficient fiscal efficiency. It is necessary to stop the use of off-shore jurisdictions and to ensure the increase in tax revenues under conditions of elimination (and even weakening) of the tax load. It is of importance to accelerate the reformation of the control over state’s corporations in order to increase their profitability and the volume of dividends, which are paid to state’s budget. It is expedient to pass to the use of more efficient mechanisms of allotment of subsidies to needy strata of the population and to extend the transparency of fiscal operations and the access of people to their monitoring and control.
Keywords: fiscal consolidation, budget deficit, state’s debt, quasifiscal operations, state’s specialized funds, public corporations, deficit-debt correction (pð. 3–19).

References

1. Kudryashov V.P. Fiskal’na konsolidatsiya ta ii vplyvy [Fiscal consolidation and its effects]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2013, No. 9, pp. 31–46 [in Ukrainian].
2. Weber A. Stock-flow adjustments and fiscal transparency: A cross-country comparison. IMF working paper, 2012, available at: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2012/wp1239.pdf.
3. Moldovan O.O. Strategiya Reformuvannya Systemy Derzhavnykh Finansiv Ukrainy: Zavdannya, Priorytety, Mekhanizmy [Strategy of Reformation of the System of Ukraine’s Public Finances: Tasks, Priorities, Mechanisms]. Kyiv, Nation. Inst. of Strateg. Studies, 2014, Ser. Economy, Iss. 17 [in Ukrainian].
4. Gosudarstvennye predpriyatiya Ukrainy khotyat sdelat’ pribyl’nymi s pomoshch’yu nemtsev [They want to make Ukraine’s public enterprises profitable with the help of Germans], available at: http://hyser.com.ua/economics/gosudarstvennye-predpriyatiya-ukrainy-xotyat-sdelat-pribylnymi-59792 [in Russian].
5. Blankart Ch. Derzhavni Finansy v Umovakh Demokratii: Vstup do Finansovoi Nauky, peredmova ta nauk. red. V.M. Fedosova [Öffentliche Finanzen in der Demokratie: Eine Einführung in die Finanzwissenschaft], foreword and edition by V.M. Fedosov. Kyiv, Lybid’, 2000 [in Ukrainian].
6. Kommunalka ukraintsam ne po karmanu [Municipal payments are hardly suited to the pockets of Ukrainians], available at: http://www.facenews.ua/articles/2016/305250/ [in Russian].
7. Subsidirovannaya moya Ukraina [My subsidized Ukraine], available at: http://www.epravda.com.ua/rus/publications/2016/02/2/579238/ [in Russian].

UDC 336.531.2:061.5

N. S.  M E D Z H Y B O V S K A,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Professor of the Chair of Economic Cybernetics,
Odesa National Economic University
Medzhybovska Nataliia Semenivna, 2016;

 e-mail: nmedzh@oneu.edu.ua.

CROWDFUNDING OF A SMALL BUSINESS:
MYTH OR REALITY?

Summary

Crowdfunding is a phenomenon of collective funding and is actively developing in recent years. The main directions of crowdfunding projects are technological innovations, social and cultural events. The financing of small businesses, which is not related to high-tech start-ups, is not popular, and, therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relevance and the potential of a crowdfunding for the financing of small businesses in Ukraine.
To achieve this goal, we should take the current situation on the Ukrainian finance market into account. First, the financing of a small business, which is not an information technology startup, is not a deal for venture capital funds and business angels. Moreover, the venture financing is not fully developed in Ukraine yet. Second, the bank crediting is limited for small businesses. Third, the crowdfunding is just starting its steps in Ukraine. The Ukrainian technological startups realize their projects on the foreign crowdfunding platforms, whereas the Ukrainian platforms focus, first of all, mostly on social projects and, secondly, do not gain the critical mass of projects and followers. Moreover, the traditions of funding, especially the equity crowdfunding of the Ukrainian businesses, are still in its infancy.
To implement the main goal of this paper, we provide the comparative characteristics of the crowdfunding with respect of alternative sources of financing such as venture capital funds and business angels, assess the crowdfunding problems, and offer solutions for them, as well as analyze the differences between small businesses and startups.
Our research has concluded that the greatest success in the small business financing in Ukraine by the crowdfunding can have local business projects based on the needs of local communities.
Keywords: crowdfunding, crowdfunding platform, crowdfunding project, venture financing, business-angel, startup, small business (pp. 20–34).

References

1. Schwienbacher A., Larralde B. Crowdfunding of small entrepreneurial ventures, in: Handbook of Entrepreneurial Finance. Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press, 2010, pp. 369–391.
2. Mollick E. The dynamics of crowdfunding: An exploratory study. J. of Business Venturing, 2014, No. 29, pp. 1–16.
3. Hemer J. A snapshot on crowdfunding. Working papers firms and region, 2011, available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254459363_A_snapshot_on_crowdfunding.
4. Barnett C. Trends show crowdfunding to surpass VC In 2016. Forbes. Entrepreneurs, 2015, available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/chancebarnett/2015/06/09/trends-show-crowdfunding-to-surpass-vc-in-2016/#7d47b1e4444b.
5. Belleflamme P., Lambert T., Schwienbacher A. Crowdfunding: tapping the right crowd. J. of Business Venturing, 2014, No. 29, pp. 585–609.
6. Gerber E., Hui J., Kuo P. Crowdfunding: why the people are motivated to post and fund projects on crowdfunding platforms. ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Workshop Paper, 2012, available at: http://juliehui.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/CSCW_Crowdfunding_Final.pdf.
7. Ordanini A., Miceli L., Pizzetti M., Parasuraman A. Crowd-funding: transforming customers into investors through innovative service platforms. J. of Service Management, 2011, No. 4, pp. 443–470.
8. Agrawal A., Catalini C., Goldfarb A. The geography of crowdfunding. National Bureau of Electronic Research, 2011, available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w16820.
9. Cordova A., Dolci J., Gianfrate G. The determinants of crowdfunding success: evidence from technology projects. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2015, No. 181, pp. 115–124.
10. Jegeleviciute S., Valanciene L. Comparative analysis of the ways crowdfunding is promoted. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2015, No. 213, pp. 268 – 274.
11. Turan S. Financial innovation – crowdfunding: friend or foe? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2015, No. 195, pp. 353–362.
12. Ibrahim N., Verliyantina. The model of crowdfunding to support small and micro businesses in Indonesia through a Web-based platform. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2012, No. 4, pp. 390–397.
13. Lysenko E. Kredity dlya malogo i srednego biznesa v Ukraine: kak poluchit’ i komu ikh dayut [Credits for small and middle business in Ukraine: how to receive them and to whom they are given]. Vesti. Novosti Biznesa – Reports. News of Business, 2015, available at: http://business.vesti-ukr.com/120863-kredity-dlja-malogo-biznesa-v-ukraine-kak-poluchit-i-komu-ih-dajut [in Russian].
14. Kraudfanding v Ukraine: s miru po dollaru [Crowdfunding in Ukraine: from the world by one dollar]. INVenture. Invest. Portal – INVenture. Invest. Portal, 2015, available at: https://inventure.com.ua/news/ukraine/kraudfanding_v_ukraine_s_miru_po_dollaru [in Russian].
15. Mearian L. Crowdfunding campaigns not only fund R&D, they're a forum for new, consumer-based ideas. Computerworld: IT news, careers, business technology,  reviews, 2016, available at: http://www.computerworld.com/article/3019349/emerging-technology/indiegogo-launches-crowdsourcing-for-big-businesses.html.
16. Yarovaya M. Pochemu khardvernye startapy predpochitayut kraudfanding venchurnym investitsiyam, 2014 [Why do the hardware startups prefer the crowdfunding to venture investments?], available at: http://ain.ua/2014/12/02/552803 [in Russian].
17. Yarovaya M. 4 prichiny, po kotorym Denis Dovgopolyi ne verit v kraudfanding, 2014 [4 reasons, by which Denis Dovgopolyi does not trust the crowdfunding], available at: http://ain.ua/2014/07/14/532739 [in Russian].
18. Schumacher-Hodge M. Chem startap otlichaetsya ot malogo biznesa? [What is the difference between a startup and a small business?]. Vest. Startap. – Reports on Startups, 2015, No. 1 (1), pp. 64–66 [in Russian].

QUESTIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIC

UDC 63.001.76:338.43: 658.821

O. M.  N Y K O L Y U K,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Assoc. Professor, Chair of Computerized Technologies and Modeling of Systems,
Zhytomyr National Agriecological University

© Nykolyuk Ol’ga Mykolaivna, 2016;
e-mail: nikoluk_olga@mail.ru.

DIRECTIONS TO FAVOR THE INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES
Summary

The ensuring of the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises under modern conditions is possible only on the principles of their innovative development. Among the key problems of the innovative support of the agriculture, we separate the low level of development of the transfer of technologies and no access to the necessary sources of financing. To solve these problems on the basis of universities of the agrarian orientation, it is recommended to create the national system of informational of the transfer of technologies, which would union the spheres of science, finances, and commodity producers. It will be based on the activity of university centers of the transfer of technologies in the agriculture, which will execute the following functions: 1) technological audit of a technology and the enterprise-customer of the innovation, development of the accompanying technical acts; 2) study of the conjuncture of a market of innovations in the agriculture; 3) assessment of the efficiency of an idea or a development, drawing-up of business-plans, establishment of contacts with investors, optimization of the sources of financing; 4) protection of the intellectual property; 5) juridical maintenance; and 6) informational backing. It is expedient to form the national system on the basis of the single informational platform, which would accumulate the information on the university level, in particular, the information about the available innovations, their efficiency, needs of agricultural enterprises, sources of financing, etc. To describe the dynamics of the competitiveness level and the income from the innovative activity and to construct the long-term forecasts of those indicators, we use a dynamical model presented by a system of differential equations. As the basis of the modeling, we take the assertion that the keeping of competing positions requires the continuous replacement of the present competitive advantages by new ones. The additional advantage of the usage of the developed model is the possibility to forecast a time moment, when the enterprise will start the creation of a future competitive advantage by means of the mastering of a new innovative product or technology.
Keywords: innovative development, agricultural enterprise, information medium for the innovative development, transfer of technologies, information platform (pp. 35–45).

References

1. Kozachenko V.Ya., Georgiadi N.G. Suchasnyi stan merezh transferu tekhnologii za kordonom ta problemy ikh rozvytku v Ukraini [The modern state of networks of the transfer of technologies abroad and the problems of their development in Ukraine]. Visn. Nats. Univ. “L’viv. Politekh.” – Bull. of Nat. Univ. “Lviv Polytechn.”, 2010, No. 691, pp. 163–172 [in Ukrainian].
2. Bogma O.S., Balduev O.V. Rol’ innovatsii u zabezpechenni konkurentospromozhnosti natsional’nykh ekonomik [The role of innovations in the support of the competitiveness of national economies]. Visn. Zaporiz. Nats. Univ., – Bull. of Zaporizh. Nat. Univ., 2010, No. 3, pp. 166–177 [in Ukrainian].
3. Pavlova N.Yu. Innovatsii kak osnova konkurentosposobnosti malogo predpriyatiya [Innovations as a basis of the competitiveness of a small enterprise]. Izv. IGEA – Bull. of Irk. State Econ. Acad., 2010, No. 5, pp. 190–192 [in Russian].
4. Semenova E.A. Rol’ innovatsii v sokhranenii konkurentosposobnosti FRG na mipovom rynke [The role of innovations in the conservation of the competitiveness of FRG on the world market]. Probl. Nats. Strat., – Probl. Nat. Strat., 2012, No. 5 (14), pp. 161–174 [in Russian].
5. Chychkalo-Kondrats’ka I.B. Rol’ innovatsiinykh naukovo-vyrobnychykh system u formuvanni konkutentnykh perevag regioniv [The role of innovative scientific-productive systems in the formation of competitive advantages of regions]. Visn. Khark. Nat. Tekhn. Univ. Sil’s. Gosp. – Bull. of Khark. Nats. Techn. Univ. of Agricult., 2010, Iss. 99, pp. 362–368 [in Ukrainian].
6. MacCormack A., Forbath T., Brooks P., Kalaher P. Innovation through global collaboration: A new source of competitive advantage. Harvard Business School Working Paper, 2007, No. 07-079, available at: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=29905.
7. Urbancova H. Competitive advantage achievement through innovation and knowledge. J. of Competitiveness, 2013, No. 5 (1), pp. 82–96.
8. Hamel G., Prahalad K. Konkuriruya za Budushchee. Sozdanie Rynkov Zavtrashnego Dnya [Competing for the Future: Breakthrough Strategies for Seizing Control of Your Industry and Creating Markets of Tomorrow]. Moscow, “Olimp-Biznes”, 2002 [in Russian].
9. The Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015: Inside Report, edited by K. Schwab. Geneva, World Economic Forum, 2014.
10. Androsyuk G.M., Kachur N.V., Maslov V.P. Modelyuvannya protsesu naukovo-tekhnichnykh ta innovatsiinykh rozrobok zalezhno vid umov finansuvannya [The modeling of the process of scientific-technical and innovative developments depending on the financing conditions]. Biznes-Inform. – Business-Inf., 2013, No. 6, pp. 155–159 [in Ukrainian].
11. Kuz’mins’ka N.L. Modelyuvannya innovatsiinogo rozvytku pidpryemstva (synergetychnyi pidkhid), v: Modelyuvannya ta Informatyzatsiya Sotsial’no-Ekonomichnogo Rozvytku Ukrainy [The modeling of the innovative development of an enterprise (synergetic approach), in: Modeling and Informatization of Ukraine’s Socio-Economic Development]. Kyiv, State Inst. Sci.-Res. Inst. Inform. and Model. of Econ., 2009, Iss. 10, available at: http://enuftir.nuft.edu.ua/jspui/handle/123456789/567 [in Ukrainian].
12. Tsenov M.O. Optymizatsiya innovatsiinogo rozvytku pidpryemstva na osnovi modeli ekonomichnogo rostu [Optimization of the innovative development of an enterprise on the basis of the model of economic growth]. Visn. Zaporiz. Nats. Univ. – Bull. of Zaporizh. Nat. Univ., 2010, No. 1 (5), pp. 118–127 [in Ukrainian].
13. Singh A., Mishra R. Mathematical modeling approach to study growth rate of grassroots technological innovations. Int. J. of Research and Reviews in Appl. Sci., 2010, No. 3 (2), pp. 177–183.
14. Mazaraki A., Mel’nyk T. Innovatsii yak dzherela strategichnykh konkurentnykh perevag [Innovations as sources of strategic competitive advantages]. Visn. KNTEU – Bull. of KNTEU, 2010, No. 2, pp. 5–15 [in Ukrainian].

UDC 658.8. 012.12:633.85

S. A.  C H E K H O V,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Director of the Research Station
of Volatile Oil and Limited-Occurence Agricultural Cultures of the NAAS of Ukraine,
I. V.  C H E K H O V A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Head of the Department of Economic and Marketing Studies and Questions of Intellectual Property of the Institute of Oil Cultures of the NAAS of Ukraine
(Zaporizhzhya)
© Chekhov Sergii Anatoliiovych, 2016;
e-mail: sercheh@ukr.net;
© Chekhova Iryna Valeriivna, 2016;
 e-mail: irina.chekhova_iok.naan@ukr.net.

UKRAINE’S SOYBEAN MARKET: TENDENCIES AND PERSPECTIVES
Summary

The indicators of the production of soybean on the domestic agrarian market for five last years are analyzed for the natural-climatic zones and regions of Ukraine. The main tendencies of a change in the dynamics of the production and the consumption of soybean in 2009–2013 are determined and analyzed. The structure and the rates of consumption of soybean in the basic directions are presented. The positions of soybean on Ukraine’s market of oil cultures are compared in view of the minimum and maximum prices of reprocessors and exporters. It is noted that the market of soybean is promising in a long-term period due to an increase in the demand for raw materials from the side of the domestic oil-fat branch, extension of the sowing geography on the whole territory of Ukraine, highest purchase prices among the main oil cultures, and diversification of the directions of consumption of soybean and products of its processing.
Keywords: market of soybean, production of soybean, directions of consumption of soybean, processed products, price positions of soybean (pp. 46–55).

References

1. Chekhov A.V., Aks’onov I.V., Grygorchuk N.F., Chekhova I.V. et al. Rekomendatsii po Vyroshchuvannyu Soi [Recommendations on the Growing of Soybean]. Zaporizhzhya, IOC of the NAAS, 2012 [in Ukrainian].
2. Gaidutskii P.I., Sabluk P.T., Lupenko Yu.O. et al. Agrarna Reforma v Ukraini [Agrarian Reform in Ukraine]. Kyiv, IAE, 2005 [in Ukrainian].
3. Lupenko Yu. Priorytetni napryamy innovatsiinoi diyal’nosti v agrarnii sferi Ukrainy [Priority directions of the innovative activity in Ukraine’s agrarian sphere]. Ekon. APK – Econ. of AIC, 2014, No. 12, pp. 5–11 [in Ukrainian].
4. Malik M.I., Shpykulyak O.G. Instytuty ta instytutsii u rozvytku agrarnoi sfery ekonomiky [Institutes and institutions in the development of economy’s agrarian sphere]. Ekon. APK – Econ. of AIC, 2011, No. 7, pp. 169–176 [in Ukrainian].
5. Pavlenchyk N.F. Teoretychni osnovy obgruntuvannya definitsii “Rynok sil’s’kogospodars’koi produktsii” [Theoretical bases of the substantiation of the definition “Market of agricultural products”]. Ekon. APK – Econ. of AIC, 2014, No. 1, pp. 85–92 [in Ukrainian].
6. Chalyi A.A. Formuvannya rynku soi ta produktiv ii pererobky v Ukraini [Formation of the market of soybean and products of its processing in Ukraine], available at: http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?C21CO [in Ukrainian].
7. Tonyuk M.O., Kontseba S.M. Shlyakhy pidvyshchennya ekonomichnoi efektyvnosti vyrobnytstva nasinnya oliinykh kul’tur u regioni [Ways to increase the economic efficiency of the production of seeds of oil cultures in a region]. Ekon. APK – Econ. of AIC, 2015, No. 3, pp. 28–33 [in Ukrainian].
8. Boiko O.O. Ekonomiko-matematychna model’ optymal’nogo rozmiru posivnykh ploshch soi v Ukraini [An economico-mathematical model of optimum size of the planted areas of soybean in Ukraine]. Agrosvit – Agriworld, 2015, No. 2, pp. 15–18 [in Ukrainian].
9. Pidlubna O.D., Kontseba S.M. Ekonomichna efektyvnist’ vyrobnytstva nasinnya soi na regional’nomu rivni [Economic efficiency of the production of soya seeds on the regional level]. Ekon. APK – Econ. of AIC, 2015, No. 1, pp. 14–20 [in Ukrainian].
10. Derevyanskii V. Ekologicheskaya soya po-khmel’nitski [Ecological soybean in the Khmel’nitskii region]. Zerno – Grain, 2012, No. 1, pp. 24–36 [in Russian].
11. Burka A. Soya v Ukraini [Soybean in Ukraine]. Zerno – Grain, 2015, No. 3, pp. 120–123 [in Ukrainian].
12. Bodnar O.V. Perspektyvy zbil’shennya dodanoi vartosti na rynku soevykh bobiv i produktiv ikh pererobky v Ukraini [Perspectives to increase the added value on the market of soya beans and products of their processing in Ukraine]. Ekon. APK – Econ. of AIC, 2015, No. 3, pp. 51–60 [in Ukrainian].
13. Konoval I.A. Prognozuvannya vyrobnytstva soi v Ukraini [Forecast of the production of soybean in Ukraine], available at: http://www. irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?C21CO [in Ukrainian].
14. Chekhova I.V. Funktsionuvannya rynku sonyashnyku v Ukraini [The functioning of Ukraine’s sunflower market]. Visn. Agrar. Nauky – Bull. of Agrar. Sci., 2015, No. 1. pp. 71–75 [in Ukrainian].

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE NATURE MANAGEMENY

UDC 330.15 : 330.14 : 336.225 : 553 : 574

Yu. V.  R A Z O W S ’ K Y I,
Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Professor at the Chair of Management and Marketing.
S. Yu. Vitte Moscow University,

O. M.  S U H I N A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Senior Sci. Researcher,
Department of Economic Problems of Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development,
Institute of Environmental Economy and Sustainable Development of the NAS of Ukraine
(Kyiv),

K. Yu.  G O R E N K O V A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
S. Yu. Vitte Moscow University

© Razows’kói Yurii Viktorovóch, 2016;
 e-mail: renta11@yandex.ru;
©  Suhina Îlena Ìókolaivna, 2016;
e-mail: olsuhina@ukr.net;
©  Gorenkova Kateróna Yur³³vna, 2016;
 e-mail: katy_s@mail.ru.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MINERAL RAW-MATERIAL
AND ECOLOGICAL CAPITALS
Summary

It is noted that the classification of a mineral raw-material capital is expedient for the differentiation of rent payments for the use of Earth’s interior for the extraction of mineral resources, whereas the classification of an ecological capital is necessary for the differentiation of ecological taxes (ecological rental payment in the future).
The purpose of the article is the classifications of mineral raw-material and ecological capitals as a basis for the differentiation of taxes in the sphere of the use of mineral resources and the protection of the natural environment.
The detailed analysis of the development of the theory of natural capital is presented. The authors have developed the theory of mineral raw-material and ecological capitals as components of the natural capital. Abroad, a lot of classifications of ecosystems were developed, but the authors have advanced a classification of assimilatory services of ecosystems, including the last version of “The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services” (CICES). The authors have proposed some definitions such as “mineral raw-material capital”, “ecological capital”, “mining rent”, “ecological rent” (and the method of its calculation). The interrelation of the mineral raw-material capital and the mining rent, as well as an ecological capital and an ecological rent, is noticed. For the first time in the world practice and the economic theory, the authors have substantiated that the classifications of the mineral raw-material capital and the mining rent must be formed by a single (general) criterion. The same is true for the ecological capital and ecological rent.
A classification of the mineral raw-material capital by the criterion of a source of its formation (accumulation) is developed, and the criteria of the differentiation of rental payments for the use of Earth’s interior for the extraction of mineral resources are presented.
The authors have shown the interrelation of the ecological capital and the assimilatory services of ecosystems. The economized classification of the ecological capital by the criterion of a source of its formation (accumulation) is developed with the inclusion of the coefficients of assimilation of the ecosystems for the determination of a size of rental payments for the use of assimilatory services of ecosystems (their monetization) (and for the determination of the rates of ecological rental payments and for the differentiation of an ecological rent).
The classifications of mineral raw-material and ecological capitals will favor the differentiation of taxes in the sphere of the use of Earth’s interior and the protection of the environment, realization of a possibility to capitalize the natural resources (to transform them in a financial capital), optimization of rental relations in the nature management sphere, and development of a state-rentier.
Keywords: mineral raw-material and ecological capitals, mining and ecological rents, single criterion, economized classification, payments oriented to a rent, tax differentiation (pð. 56–78).

References

1. Haines-Young R., Potschin M. Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES, Version 4.1). Copenhagen, Nottingham, European Environment Agency, 2012.
2. Costanza R., Daly H.E. Natural capital and sustainable development. Conservation Biology, 1992, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 37–46.
3. Costanza R., d’Arge R., de Groot R. et al. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 1997, Vol. 387, pp. 253–260.
4. Costanza R. Ecosystem services: multiple classification systems are needed. Biol. Conservation, 2008, No. 141, pp. 350–352.
5. Baibusinov Sh.Sh., Shkiperova G.T. Problemy kapitalizatsii prirodnogo kapitala regiona [Problems of the capitalization of the natural capital of a region], available at: www.krc.karelia.ru/doc_download.php?id=312 [in Russian].
6. Bobylev S.N., Perelet R.A., Solov’eva S.V. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenke i vnedreniyu sistemy platezhei za ekosistemnye uslugi na OOPT [proekt] [Methodical recommendations on the assessment and introduction of a system of payments for ecosystem services on SPNT [project]]. Moscow, 2011 [in Russian].
7. Razowskii Yu.V., Makarkin Yu.N., Gorenkova E.Yu. Mineral’no-Syr’evoi Kapital [Mineral Raw-Material Capital]. Moscow, “U Nikitskikh vorot”, 2013 [in Russian].
8. Razowskii Yu.V. Klassifikatsiya prirodnogo kapitala [Classification of a natural capital]. Gorn. Zh. – Mining J., 2015, No. 5, pp. 37–39 [in Russian].
9. Razowskii Yu.V., Matyukha V.V., Suhina E.N. Strategiya gosudarstvennogo upravleniya v sfere nedropol’zovaniya Rossii i Ukrainy [Public administration strategy in the mineral resources management sphere of Russia and Ukraine]. Gorn. Zh. – Mining J., 2012, No. 4, pp. 3–7 [in Russian].
10. Matyukha V.V. Metodologicheskii podkhod po usovershenstvovaniyu ekonomicheskoi otsenki stoimosti mineral’no-syr’evykh resursov [A methodological approach to the improvement of the economic assessment of the cost of mineral raw-material resources]. Gorn. Zh. – Mining J., 2013, No. 3, pp. 56–57 [in Russian].
11. Neverov A.V., Derevyago I.P., Neverov D.A. Ekologicheskii kapital: soderzhanie i teoriya vosproizvodstva [Ecological capital: content and the theory of reproduction]. Mekh. Regul. Ekon. – Mech. of Regul. of the Economy, 2010, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 32–45 [in Russian].
12. Guerry A.D., Polasky S., Lubchenco J. et al. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: from promise to practice. Proceed. of the NAS of the USA, 2015, Vol. 112, No. 24, pp. 7348–7355.
13. Perelet R.A. Platezhi za ekosistemnye uslugi: teoriya, metodologiya i zarubezhnyi opyt prakticheskogo ispol’zovaniya [Payments for ecosystem services: theory, methodology, and foreign experience of practical use], available at: http://www.wildnet.ru/state/docs/Plateji.pdf [in Russian].
14. Mishenin E.V., Degtyar’ N.V. Ekonomika ekosystemnykh poslug: teoretyko-metodologichni osnovy [Economy of ecosystem services: methodological-theoretic foundations]. Market. i Menedzh. Innov. – Market. and Manag. of Innov., 2015, No. 2, pp. 243–257 [in Ukrainian].
15. Burkyns’kyi B.V., Goryachuk V.F. Otsinka pryrodnogo kapitalu regioniv Ukrainy yak umova formuvannya zelenoi ekonomiky [Assessment of the natural capital of Ukraine’s regions as a condition of the formation of the green economy]. Ekon. Innov. – Econ. Innovat., 2013, Iss. 52, pp. 9–20 [in Ukrainian].
16. Glazyrina I.P. Platezhi za ekosistemnye uslugi i Kheredianskaya Deklaratsiya [Payments for ecosystem services and the Heredia Declaration]. Ekon. Prirodopol. – Econ. of Nature Manag., 2012, No. 5, ðð. 59–68 [in Russian].
17. Stanton T., Echavarria M., Hamilton K., Ott C. State of watershed payments: an emerging marketplace. Ecosystem marketplace, available at: http://www.foresttrends.org/documents/files/doc_2438.pdf.
18. Suhina O.M. Rozvytok teorii ekologichnoi renty ta ii spravedlyvogo rozpodilu [Development of the theory of ecological rent and its fair distribution]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2014, No. 7, pp. 49–68 [in Ukrainian].
19. Suhina O.M. Capital écologique des communautés unis locales de l’Ukraine: la recherche d'écorente, in: Modern Transformation of Economics and Management in the Era of Globalization. Proceedings of the Intern. Sci. Conference, January 29, 2016, Klaipeda. Klaipeda, Baltija Publ., 2016, pp. 232–236.
20. Suhina E.N. Economized classification of assimilative services of ecosystems as the instrument of their monetization in the development CICES, in: From Baltic to Black Sea: National Models of Economic Systems. Proceedings of the Intern. Sci.-Pract. Conference, Part I, March 25, 2016, Riga. Riga, Baltija Publ., 2016, pp. 226–231.
21. Suhina O.M. Åcological rent: evaluation methodology, in: Innovative Potential of Socio-Economic Systems: the Challenges of the Global World. Proceedings of the Intern. Sci.-Pract. Conference, Part II, June 30, 2016, Lissàbon. Lissàbon, Riga, Baltija Publ., 2016, pp. 74–77.

UDC 504.06 + 330.15

I. V.  S H E V C H E N K O,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Senior Sci. Researcher,
Institute of Environmental Economics
and Sustainable Development of the NAS of Ukraine
(Kyiv)

© Shevchenko Iryna Viktorivna, 2016;
 e-mail: shev26@i.ua

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS AS
A TOOL OF THE ECOLOGICAL POLICY IN UKRAINE

Summary

Considering the demands of Ukraine’s modern economic development, international obligations, and European principles, the question of the implementation of new effective control levers of the ecological policy in order to attain the economically sustainable development of the country arises. At the general direction of the State strategy of a transition onto the principles of sustainable development, the management of the environment protection and the rational use of natural resources acquire the special urgency.
One of the tools ensuring the balance of the environmental policy is a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) used practically in all countries of the world as a preventing efficient lever. This paper presents the current state of the art of SEA on the basis of the available literature, recent international conferences, and practical experience. It provides an overview of how SEA has evolved, the main schools of thought, and application on the international level. SEA brings about numerous benefits and has a high potential to contribute to the improvement of the decision-making processes, even if it is not used in the full volume.
The aim of the study is to define the expediency of strategic environmental assessments in Ukraine as a tool for regulating the ecological policy.
SEA is often used as a means to reduce the negative environmental effects of the proposed strategic actions. The procedure focuses on a comprehensive analysis of the possible impact of a planned activity on the state of the environment in the short- and long-term periods and on the use of the results to prevent or mitigate environmental impacts. SEA informs about the resistance (efficiency) of strategic decisions, stimulates changes in the mentality, and fosters a culture of strategic decision-making.
Of course, the SEA tool of the innovative environmental policy is still developing, but it has a great potential for the guarantee of a favorable state of the environment, safe vital activity, and rights on ecological benefits and services for the future generations.
Keywords: strategic environmental assessment, ecological policy, sustainable development, decision-making (pp. 79–86).

References

1. Wood C., Djeddour M. The environmental assessment of policies, plans and programmes. Report to the European Commission on Environmental Assessment of Policies, Plans and Programmes and Preparation. Manchester, EIA Centre, Univ. of Manchester, 1989, Vol. 1, available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf.
2. Palekhov D.O. Pravovi problemy implementatsii mekhanizmu strategichnoi ekologichnoi otsinky na Ukraini, v: Nauka i Osvita 2005, VIII Mizhn. Nauk.-Prakt. Konf. [Legal problems of the implementation of a mechanism of strategic environmental assessment in Ukraine, in: Science and Education 2005, VIII Intern. Sci.-Pract. Conference]. Dnipropetrovs’k, Nauka i Osvita, 2005, Vol. 47, Right, pp. 59–61 [in Ukrainian].
3. Melen’-Zabramna O. Metodychni rekomendatsii shchodo organizatsii ta provedennya strategichnoi ekologichnoi otsinky, v: Proekt Rozroblennya ta vprovadzhennya publichnoi polityky (PRISM) [Methodical recommendations as for the organization and the implementation of a strategic environmental assessment, in: Project of Development and Implementation of Public Policy (PRISM)], available at: http://net.cbie.ca/projects [in Ukrainian].
4. Partidário M.R. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): current practices, future demands and capacity-building needs, available at: http://www.commdev.org/files/1725_file_SEAManual.pdf
5. Partidário M.R. Does SEA change outcomes? in: Proceed. of the 18th Intern. Transports Research Symposium. Session 5, Disc. paper No. 2009–31, Desember. Madrid, 2009, available at: http://www.internationaltransportforum. org/Proceedings/Symp2009/index.html.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN THE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

UDC [316.334.23:314.745.22]:340.13

I. V.  K R E M E N O V S ’ K A,
Cand. of Jurid. Sci., Senior Sci. Researcher,
Academic Secretary,

O. A.  S V Y A T O G O R,
Postgraduate
Institute of Economic and Legal Researches of the NAS of Ukraine
 (Kyiv)

© Kremenovs’ka Iryna Volodymyrivna, 2016;
e-mail: i.v.kremenovskaya@gmail.com.
©  Svyatogor Oleksii Anatoliiovych, 2016;
 e-mail: a.svyatogor@gmail.com.

THE LEGAL LEVERS TO SOLVE THE HOUSING PROBLEMS
OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
AND TO ACTIVATE THEIR BUSINESS ACTIVITY
Summary

The article presents some propositions as for the assistance to a social adaptation of internally displaced persons. It is shown that the main factors determining the choice of a new place of residence by persons are the presence of possibilities for the provision of jobs and a constant place to live. For the families including the school-age children, the additional factor is the presence of possibilities for the continuation of their education and the reception of a background.
Some aspects of the legal support of using the potential of small and middle-sized entrepreneurship in agrarian areas are studied. The legal estimation of the acts of Ukraine’s current legislation concerning the solution of housing problems and the provision of the employment of internally displaced persons is given. A separate attention is paid to the study of conditions for the employment and the provision of everyday needs of migrants in a rural area. The statistical data testifying to the presence of problems concerning the infrastructure in villages, in particular, a reduction in the number of schools of general education are presented. This hampers the arrangement of children of the families of migrants into educational institutions and schools. 
The means of economic stimulation of the business activity of internally displaced persons are considered, and the main socio-economic factors of their business activity are characterized. It is proposed to introduce changes in Ukraine’s current legislation concerning the allocation of the right to use the derelict (ownerless) buildings and land area on the gratuitous basis to internally displaced persons and the simplification of the procedure of their entry to the property right on a heirless realty for them with the establishment of a special term of acquisitive prescription for natural persons, by changing it from 10 to 3 years.
On the basis of the analysis of a successful experience of foreign countries in the organization of a collaboration of the business and the population, it is substantiated that the business potential of internally displaced persons can become a driver of the renewal of villages.
Keywords: internally displaced persons, migrants, village, farm economy, realty, property, enterpreneurship (pð. 87–94).

References

1. Yurydychna Entsyklopediya. V 6 t. Redkol.: Yu.S. Shemshuchenko (golova) ta in. [Juridical Encyclopedia. In 6 vols.], edited by Yu.S. Shemshuchenko (Editor-in-Chief), et al. Kyiv, Ukrain. Entsykl. im. M.P. Bazhana, 2002, Vol. 4 [in Ukrainian].
2. Maibutne – za ekoposelennyamy ta agromistechkamy [Future will belong to ecosettlements and agritowns]. Ukr Sprava. Dopom. Bizn. – Ukr Sprava. Help to Business, available at: http://ukrsprava.com/index.php?newsid=2510 [in Ukrainian].
3. Sobkevych O.V. et al. Strategichni Napryamy Instytutsiinogo Zabezpechennya Rozvytku Agrarnogo Sektoru v Ukraini [Strategic Directions of the Institutional Ensuring of a Development of the Agrarian Sector in Ukraine]. Kyiv, NISS, 2014 [in Ukrainian].
4. Kropyvko M.F. Klasternyi pidkhid do upravlinnya sil’s’kym rozvytkom [The cluster approach to a control over the rural development]. Ekon. APK – Economy of AIC, 2008, No. 5, p. 55–58 [in Ukrainian].

CRITIQUE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

V. V.  Y U R C H Y S H Y N,*
Academician of the NAAS of Ukraine
(Kyiv)

A FUNDAMENTAL GLANCE AT THE FUNDAMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM
(pp.  95–97)
_______

SUMMARIES (pp. 98–100)
_______

EDITORIAL POLICY AND ETHIC NORMS

(pp. 101–102)

 



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