V. L. M A Z U R,
Professor, Doctor of Techn. Sci., Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine,
Honored Worker of Science and Technique of Ukraine,
Principal Sci. Researcher,
Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of the NAS of Ukraine
© Mazur Valerii Leonidovych, 2016; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
PROBLEMS OF THE INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN UKRAINE
By some examples of the functioning of signed enterprises of the metallurgy, machine-building, titan industry, chemical industry, and other branches of the economy, the drawbacks of Ukraine’s industrial policy, which threaten the state to be deindustrialized, are revealed. The actuality of the theme is strengthened by many times in connection with the world financial-economic crisis and the force majeure circumstances taking place in Ukraine in connection with the situation in the Donbas.
It is shown that the industrial policy is the integral and coordinated system of measures of authorities, which are aimed at the development of the industry on the whole and its separate branches, and is realized through the relevant mechanisms (stimulation, regulation, control, etc). The object of the industrial policy is not only the separate enterprises or production branches, but the whole industrial complex of the state, which should be considered as a single holistic organism.
It is shown that the industrial policy must support the enhancement of the competitiveness of commodities and services of the domestic producers on the foreign markets, i.e., it must involve the foreign economic aspects and must protect the internal market from the expansion of foreign commodities. The final purpose should be the competitiveness of the national economy in the middle- and long-term perspectives with regard for state’s security (food, defense, etc.).
It is shown that the common sign of the majority of enterprises of the machine-building is the orientation of their products onto the external markets and the traditionally strong cooperation with enterprises of the CIS. Almost all machine-building enterprises require a permanent state support. The industrial policy of Ukraine must consider these peculiarities of the machine-building complex, by being based on state’s pragmatic economic interests. It is intolerable, by using the slogans of as if fair competition, to give the orders of the Ukrainian power industry to foreign companies, which have no scientific-technical advantages over the domestic industrial leading plants.
The existence of the possibility to enhance the efficiency of the functioning of great industrial objects and industrial branches in the case where the authorities make the economically grounded decisions is shown. Some managerial measures that will ensure a support of the national interests at the realization of the industrial policy in Ukraine are proposed.
Keywords: industrial policy, economy, metallurgy, scrap metal, machine-building, power industry, chemical industry, development, personnel (pp. 3–18).
1. Vyshnevs’kyi V.P. Promyslova polityka: teoretychnyi aspekt [Industrial policy: theoretical aspect]. Ekon. Promysl. – Econ. of Industry, 2012, No. 2, pp. 4–15 [in Ukrainian].
2. Kindzers’kyi Yu. Instytut derzhavy i problemy onovlennya promyslovoi polityky v Ukraini [The institution of a state and problems of the renewal of the industrial policy in Ukraine]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2011, No. 1, pp. 48–58 [in Ukrainian].
3. Zveryakov M.I. Promyslova polityka i mekhanizm ii realizatsii [Industrial policy and a mechanism of its realization]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2016, No. 6, pp. 3–18 [in Ukrainian].
4. Palekhova V.A. Promyslova polityka: teoretychnyi aspekt ta uroky inozemnogo dosvidu [Industrial policy: theoretical aspect and lessons of the foreign experience]. Efekt. Ekon. – Effic. Econ., 2009, No. 5, available at: http://www.economy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=2021 [in Ukrainian].
5. Mazur V.L., Tymoshenko M.V. Aktual’ni ekonomichni pytannya v metalurgiinii galuzi Ukrainy [Actual economic questions of Ukraine’s metallurgical branch]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2012, No. 6, pp. 13–23 [in Ukrainian].
6. Mazur V.L., Tymoshenko M.V. Nerealizovani mozhlyvosti popovnennya byudzhetu Ukrainy [Unrealized potentialities to replenish Ukraine’s budget]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2012, No. 11, pp. 38–47 [in Ukrainian].
7. Mazur V.L., Tymoshenko M.V. Analiz uryadovykh program pidtrymky metalurgii Ukrainy [Analysis of state’s support programs of Ukraine’s metallurgy]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2013, No. 8, pp. 22–32 [in Ukrainian].
8. Mazur V.L., Skorokhod O.B. Konkurentni pozytsii pidpryemstv girnycho-metalurgiinogo kompleksu Ukrainy [Competitive positions of enterprises of Ukraine’s mining-metallurgical complex]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2009, No. 3, pp. 4–18 [in Ukrainian].
9. Mazur V.L., Tymoshenko M.V., Mazur S.V. Problemy regulyuvannya rynku brukhtu chornykh metaliv v Ukraini [Problems of regulation of the ferrous scrap market in Ukraine]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2014, No. 11, pp. 39–50 [in Ukrainian].
10. Mazur V.L., Timoshenko M.V., Mazur S.V. Ekologicheskie, tekhnologicheskie i ekonomicheskie aspekty razvitiya metallurgii Ukrainy [Ecological, technological, and economic aspects of the development of Ukraine’s metallurgy]. Ekol. i Promysh. – Ecol. and Indust., 2014, No. 3, pp. 4–18 [in Russian].
11. Shevchenko N. Vysokaya kontsentratsiya [High concentration]. Biznes – Business, 2016, 25 July, pp. 14–19 [in Russian].
PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC THEORY
V. M. K O V A L Y O V,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Head of the Chair of Economy of Enterprises and Management,
O. A. A T A E V A,
Assoc. Professor, Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Assoc. Professor of the Chair of Economy of Enterprises and Management
Ukrainian Engineering-Pedagogical Academy
© Kovalyov Valerii Mykolayovych, 2016;
e-mail : email@example.com
© Ataeva Olena Alimivna, 2016;
e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org.
SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEVELOPMENT
OF A HUMAN LABOR
The appearance and the development of a human labor, which are related to the establishment of a person on our planet as a carrier of the own potential, testified to the start of the human era and the civilization existing under conditions of the arising of permanent socio-economic contradictions in the society that are generated by the very nature of persons and by consequences of their labor.
The social consequences of the development of a human labor are understood as a result of the targeted useful activity of persons under the influence of manifestations of the system of objective laws of development of the Nature and the society that is realized in the continuous development of productive forces and in the transformation of production relations in the society, as well as in the aspiration of the humanity to the perfectness of the spiritual, material, and social life of persons themselves.
But, in the modern time, the humanity has entered, in essence, in the epoch of the global development of productive forces and economic possibilities. At the same time, the system of oligarchic capitalism has immersed the world community into the chaos of social relations and into the strip of wars and international conflicts, revolutions, terrorism, corruption, exploitation of a person by a person, and the inequality of distributive relations destroying the spiritual, material, and social bases of people. Therefore, the humanity and the economic science should comprehend the aims and the law of coexistence of persons on the basis of the noospheric approach, the system of other objective laws of development of the Nature and the society, the essence of the category of social consequences of a labor, and the new methodology, which is proposed in the present article and is aimed at the formation of a labor potential structure, and should substantiate the proportions of a distribution of the as-formed values between the owners of the labor potential.
Those proportions can become a scientific basis for the substantiation of a volume of legislatively established standards and normatives in the system of social partnership, which will allow one to specifically discussed the ways of socialization and humanization of the capitalistic means of production and its social relations.
Keywords: labor, social consequences, laws of development, human and labor potentials, human capital, economic formations, social relations, methodology of quantitative evaluation, social standards and normatives, social partnership, added value (pp. 19–33).
1. Vernadskii V.I. Biosfera i Noosfera [Biosphere and Noosphere]. Moscow, Airis-Press, 2004 [in Russian].
2. Smith A. Issledovanie o Prirode i Prichinakh Bogatstva Narodov [An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations]. Moscow, Eksmo, 2007 [in Russian].
3. Ricardo D. Nachala Politicheskoi Ekonomii i Nalogovogo Oblozheniya [On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation]. Moscow, Gospolitizdat, 1955 [in Russian].
4. Marx K., Engels F. Naemnyi Trud i Kapital [Hired Labor and Capital]. Moscow, Politizdat, 1957, Collection of Works, Vol. 6 [in Russian].
5. Marshall A. Printsipy Economicheskoi Nauki [Principles of Economics]. Moscow, Progress, 1993 [in Russian].
6. Samuelson P.A., Nordhaus W.D. Ekonomika [Economics]. Moscow, Vil’yams, 2000 [in Russian].
7. McConnell C.R. Ekonomiks: Printsipy, Problemy i Politika [Economics: Principles, Problems, and Policies]. Kiev, KhaGar, 2000 [in Russian].
8. Taylor F. Nauchnaya Organizatsiya Truda i Upravleniya [The Principles of Scientific Management]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1965 [in Russian].
9. Strumilin S.G. Problemy Ekonomiki Truda [Labor Economy Problems]. Moscow, Nauka, 1982 [in Russian].
10. Gastev A.K. Kak Nado Rabotat’. Prakticheskoe Vvedenie v Nauku Organizatsii Truda [How to Work. Practical Introduction in the Labor Organization Science]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1966 [in Russian].
11. Kudryavtsev A.S. Sotsialisticheskaya Organizatsiya Obshchestvennogo Truda [Socialist Organization of the Social Labor]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1974 [in Russian].
12. Gal’chinskii A. Marks i Sovremennyi Mir: Gumanisticheskaya Dominanta [Marx and Modern World: Humanistic Dominant]. Kiev, Lybid’, 2015 [in Russian].
13. Kolot A.M., Grishnova O.A. , Gerasymenko O.O. et al. Ekonomika Pratsi ta Sotsial’no-Trudovi Vidnosyny, za nauk. red. A.M. Kolota [Economy of Labor and Socio-Labor Relations], edited by A.M. Kolot. Kyiv, KNEU, 2009 [in Ukrainian].
14. Libanova E.M. Nerivnist’ za dokhodamy v suchasnii Ukraini, v: Sotsial’no-Trudovi Vidnosyny: Teoriya i Praktyka [Inequality in incomes in the modern Ukraine, in: Socio-Labor Relations: Theory and Practice]. Kyiv, KNEU, 2014, pp. 26–36 [in Ukrainian].
15. Bogynya D.P., Grishnova O.A. Osnovy Ekonomiky Pratsi [Foundations of the Labor Economy]. Kyiv, Znannya-Pres, 2000 [in Ukrainian].
16. Kim M.N. Ekonomika Truda i Sotsial’no-Trudovye Otnosheniya [Labor Economy and Socio-Labor Relations]. Khar’kov, Tochka, 2015 [in Russian].
17. Genkin B.M. Ekonomika i Sotsiologiya Truda [Economy and Sociology of Labor]. Moscow, Norma, 2009 [in Russian].
18. Volgin N., Val’ E. Motivatsionnaya osnova effektivnosti truda [The motivative basis of the labor efficiency]. Chelovek i Trud – Person and Labor, 2000, No. 4, pp. 75–84 [in Russian].
19. Kolot A., Gerasymenko O. Tsinnosti trudovogo zhyttya ta gidna pratsya: filosofiya vzaemodii i rozvytku [Values of the labor life and the worthy labor: the philosophy of interaction and development]. Ukraina: Aspekty Pratsi – Ukraine: Aspects of Labor, 2016, Nos. 1-2, pp. 3–13 [in Ukrainian].
20. Pavlov M.Yu. Innovatsionnoe razvitie ekonomiki Rossii v kontekste realizatsii tselei chelovechestva, v: Innovatsionnoe Razvitie Ekonomiki Rossii: Institutsional’naya Sreda. IV Mezhd. Konf., Moskva, MGU im. M.V. Lomonosova, 20–22 aprelya 2011 g. [Innovative development of Russia’s economy in the context of a realization of purposes of the humanity, in: Innovative Development of Russia’s Economy: Institutional Medium. IV Intern. Confer., Moscow, M.V. Lomonosov MSU, April 20–22, 2011]. Moscow, TEIS, 2011, pp. 106–112 [in Russian].
21. Novyi Zavet Gospoda Nashego Iisusa Khrista [New Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ]. St.-Petersburg, Synodal Typogr., 1892 [in Russian].
22. Schurè E. Velikie Posvyashchennye. Ocherk Ezoterizma Religii [Les Grands Initiés. Esquisse de’Histoire Secrete des Religions]. Moscow, Olma Media Grupp, 2013 [in Russian].
23. Kovalyov V.M., Gorshkov V.P. Strategichni napryamy rozvytku Ukrainy [Strategic directions of Ukraine’s development]. Form. Rynk. Vidn. v Ukraini – Form. of Market Rel. in Ukraine, 2014, Iss. 2 (153), pp. 3–11 [in Ukrainian].
GOVERNING THE ECONOMY: THEORY AND PRACTICE
V. V. G U M E N ² U K,
Assoc. Professor, Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Doctoral cand. at the Chair of Economic Theory and Competitive Policy,
Kyiv National Trade-Economic University
© Gumeniuk Volodómór Volodymyrovych, 2016; e-mail: email@example.com.
THE STATE CONTROL OVER THE COMPETITION ON THE MARKET OF
Under the modern conditions, the necessity to move Ukraine’s resort-recreational sphere onto a qualitatively new level of its functioning is objectively matured. There exist the needs in the reconstruction of the system of state’s support of the development of a competition. At the same time, the conceptual positions of the development of a competition and the formation of tools of state’s competitive policy remain a theme of the scientific discussion. The questions about state’s competitive policy in the resort-recreational sphere and its results require the up-date rethinking.
Here, the conceptual principles of the development of a competition under conditions of the establishment of the market of resort-recreational services in Ukraine are considered. The character of a manifestation of key forces of the competition is studied, and the peculiarities of their arrangement in the resort-recreational sphere are revealed. The preconditions and the factors of an innovative competition are determined, and the potential of stimulation of the steady development of resorts of the state and local levels with its participation is substantiated. The peculiarities of functioning of the market mechanism in the resort-recreational sphere under conditions of a monopolistic competition are shown. The problems and the consequences of a low level of the nonprice competition on the market of resort-recreational services caused by the underestimation of the meaning of a development of the favorable competitive medium for the development of the resort recreation, which occurs together with the neglect of social interests of the social development, individual values of a person, and his/her differentiated needs and possibilities are clarified.
The manifestations of an unfair competition, cases of abuse of the monopolistic state, and anticompetitive actions of authorities and economic entities hamper the structural changes in the resort-recreational sphere, which are directed to the enhancement of the quality of services, and activation of the processes of balanced pricing.
This study claims the necessity to develop and to realize the value-oriented conception of state’s economic policy, which would stimulate the efficient competition in the interests of the consumers of resort-recreational services.
Keywords: competition, resort-recreational sphere, competitive medium, competitive policy, market, state control. (ðp. 34–44).
1. Robinson J. Ekonomicheskaya Teoriya Nesovershennoi Konkurentsii, pod red. I. Osadchei [The Economics of Imperfect Competition], edited by I. Osadchaya. Moscow, Progress, 1986 [in Russian].
2. Porter M. Konkurentsiya [On Competition]. Moscow, Vil’yams, 2005 [in Russian].
3. Chamberlin E. Teoriya Monopolisticheskoi Konkurentsii: Reorientatsiya Teorii Stoimosti [The Theory of Monopolistic Competition: A Reorientation of the Theory of Value]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1996 [in Russian].
4. Schumpeter J. Teoriya Ekonomicheskogo Razvitiya [The Theory of Economic Development]. Moscow, Progress, 1982 [in Russian].
5. Heyets V.M. Preodolenie kvazirynochnosti – put’ k investithionno orientirovannoi modeli ekonomicheskogo rosta [Overcoming the quasimarketness – a way to the investment-oriented model of economic growth]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2015, No. 6, pp. 4–17 [in Russian].
6. Mazaraki A.A., Mel’nychenko S.V. Turyzm v Ukraini: vyklyky kryzy [Tourism in Ukraine: challenges of the crisis]. Visn. Kyiv. Nats. Torg.-Ekon. Univ. – Bull. of Kyiv Nat. Trade-Econ. Univ., 2015, No. 2, pp. 5–15 [in Ukrainian].
7. Lagutin V.D. Monopoliya ta konkurentna polityka: polityko-ekonomichni problemy [Monopoly and competitive policy: politico-economic problems]. Ekonomich. Teoriya – Econom. Theory, 2015, No. 4, pp. 89–97 [in Ukrainian].
8. Lagutin V.D., Bakalins’ka O.O., Verteleva O.V. et al. Konkurentsiya i Konkurentna Polityka: Kategorii ta Ponyattya [Competition and Competitive Policy: Categories and Notions]. Kyiv, KNTEU, 2009 [in Ukrainian].
9. Kindzers’kyi Yu.V., Yakubovs’kyi M.M., Galytsya I.O. et al. Potentsial Natsional’noi Promyslovosti: Tsili ta Mekhanizmy Efektyvnogo Rozvytku, za red. Yu.V. Kindzers’kogo [The Potential of the National Industry: Purposes and Mechanisms of Efficient Development], edited by Yu.V. Kindzers’kyi. Kyiv, Inst. for Economics and Forecast. of the NAS of Ukraine, 2009, pp. 595–657 [in Ukrainian].
10. Porter M., Teisberg E. Pereosmyslenie Sistemy Zdravookhraneniya. Kak Sozdat’ Konkurentsiyu, Osnovannuyu na Tsennosti i Orientirovannuyu na Rezul’tat [Redefining Health Case: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results]. Kiev, Standart, 2007 [in Russian].
FINANCES. TAXES. CREDIT
I. V. B O G D A N,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Senior Sci. Researcher,
Head of the Department of Economic Mathematical Modeling and
Informational-Analytic Support of Financial Economic Studies,
Academy of Financial Management
© Bogdan Ivan Vitaliiovych, 2016; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
PROCYCLIC OR ANTICYCLIC FISCAL POLICY: METHODS OF DIAGNOSTICS
The article is devoted to practical aspects of the application of modern tools of the diagnostics of a fiscal policy in the context of the formation of conditions for the macroeconomic stability and the support of a sustainable economic growth in the future. A methodical approach to the determination of a directedness of the fiscal policy and its correspondence to the problems of macroeconomic balance with regard for the current trend of an economic cycle is presented. For this purpose on the basis of the data of IMF and reports of the State Exchequer Service of Ukraine, Pension Fund of Ukraine, and State Statistics Service of Ukraine with the use of our previous results of studies concerning the estimation of indicators of the sector of general public administration (SGPA) and according to standards of the tax-budgetary statistics of IMF GFSM-2001, the value of potential GDP, gap between it and the value of real GDP, elasticity of incomes of the SGPA relative to GDP, cyclic component of incomes of the SGPA, operational and summary balances of the SGPA with regard for the cyclic component and without it, and fiscal pulses of the balances of the sector of public administration are calculated and analyzed. On the basis of the obtained data, the time periods (since 2002 till 2015), in which the fiscal policy of Ukraine affected procyclically or anticyclically the economic dynamics trajectory, are determined. The risks of a strengthening of macroeconomic disbalances, which are related to a negative fiscal pulse that comes from the fiscal policy of Ukraine for two last years due to the consolidation of consumer and investment expenditures and to the direction of money assets (including the borrowed ones) to the acquisition of financial assets, are substantiated.
Keywords: sector of a general public administration, cyclically corrected fiscal deficit, procyclic and anticyclic fiscal policies, fiscal pulse (pp. 45–57).
1. Dernberg T. Fiscal analysis in the Federal Republic of Germany: the cyclically neutral budget. IMF Staff Papers, 1975, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 825–857.
2. Heller P.S., Haas R.D., Mansur A.S. A review of the fiscal impulse measure. Occasional Paper, 1986, No. 44.
3. Muller P., Price R. Structural budget deficits and fiscal stance. OECD Working Papers, 1984, No. 15.
4. Schinasi G.J. International comparisons of fiscal policy: the OECD and the IMF measures of fiscal impulse. Intern. Finance Discussion Papers, 1986, No. 274.
5. Blanchard O. Suggestions for a new set of fiscal indicators. OECD Working Papers, 1990, No. 79.
6. Blinder A.S., Solow R.M. Does fiscal policy matter? Available at: https://www.princeton.edu/~erp/ERParchives/archivepdfs/M144.pdf.
7. Leeuw F., Holloway T. Cyclical adjustment of the federal budget and federal debt. Survey of Current Business, 1983, No. 63 (12), pp. 25–40.
8. How to Measure the Fiscal Deficit: Analytical and Methodological Issues, edited by M. Blejer, A. Cheasty. Washington, Intern. Monetary Fund, 1993.
9. Bogdan I.V., Yara T.Yu., Konovalenko D.V. Diagnostyka stanu sektoru zagal’noderzhavnogo upravlinnya Ukrainy [Diagnostics of a state of the sector of Ukraine’s public administration]. Finansy Ukrainy – Ukraine’s Finances, 2016, No. 3, pp. 61–77 [in Ukrainian].
10. Bogdan I.V. Protsyklichnyi fiskal’nyi shoker [A procyclic fiscal shocker]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnya – Week’s Mirror, 2016, No. 18 [in Ukrainian].
11. Knotek E.S. How useful is Okun’s law? Available at: https://www.kansascityfed.org/Publicat/ECONREV/PDF/4q07Knotek.pdf.
12. Pyshchulina O.M., Koval’ O.P., Kochemyrovs’ka O.O. Systemni Vady Rynku Pratsi ta Priorytety Iogo Reformuvannya, za red. Ya.A. Zhalila [System Shortcomings of a Labor Market and Priorities of Its Reformation], edited by Ya.A. Zhalilo. Kyiv, NISS, 2010 [in Ukrainian].
QUESTIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIC
UDC 338.43.01(061.1 ªÑ)
Î. Ì. B O R O D I N A,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci., Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine,
Head of the Department of Economy and Policy of Agrarian Transformations,
Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine
© (Borodina Olena Mykolaivna), 2016; e-mail: email@example.com.
CAP OF EU AS THE DYNAMICAL UNION OF SECTORAL NEEDS AND SOCIAL INTERESTS
CAP is the history of the dynamical partnership between citizens, farmers, and politicians, which was developed in the correspondence with global challenges. CAP has passed the way from the solution of the problems of a deficit of foodstuffs to the solution of the problems of its quality and safety with the creation of proper conditions of upkeep of animals, guarantee of the controllability and conservation of the environment, and production of public benefits, by which the producers supply the citizens of EU.
Due to CAP, the citizens of EU have guarantees of the solution of a number of social questions (quality and safety of foodstuffs, consumer’s choice, conservation of the rural territory and natural resources, prosperity of rural communities, conservation of the traditional style of life, ensuring the health of animals) and global problems such as changes in the climate and food security. The guarantees of CAP concerning those economic, social, and ecological questions testify that it serves not only the farmers, but all Europeans, because namely they pay for its realization.
The new agrarian policy till 2020 corresponds to the economic, ecological, and territorial challenges, with which Europe and the world are faced in the third millennium, and demonstrates the real responsibility for the solution of global problems affecting many persons in EU and outside it (especially, the problems of food security, changes in the climate, and migration). In this case, it shows the dedication to the European model of agriculture built on the family farming and supports its advantages such as the self-provision with foodstuffs in the Euroregion with the 500-million population and the potential ability to the management on the principles of stability, which secures, in turn, its future in the long-term perspective.
Ukraine can take the important lessons from the evolution of CAP for the creation of a new ideological platform with state’s support of the development of the domestic agriculture and the rural communities. The time periods, when the monoculturization and the growth of a raw-materials export were considered as the political priorities, must go to the past. Such practice destroys the foundations of not only the rural life, but the very agricultural production as well.
Keywords: Common agrarian policy, European Union, European farmers, public benefits, sustainable development. (ðp. 58–70).
1. Lynggaard K., Nedergaard P. The logic of policy development: lessons learned from reform and routine within CAP 1980–2003. J. of Europ. Integr., 2009, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 291–309.
2. Swinnen J. The political economy of the most radical reform of the Common agricultural policy. German J. of Agric. Econ., 2010, Vol. 59, Suppl. 2, pp. 37–48, available at: http://www.gjae-online.de/news/pdfstamps/freeoutputs/GJAE-608_2010.
3. Lyon G. Draft Report on the Future of the Common Agricultural Policy after 2013. Brussels, European Parliament, March 2010, ðð. 1–20.
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE NATURE MANAGEMENT
UDC 502.2 – 332.334
O. I. D R E B O T,
Professor, Doctor Econ. Sci.,
Deputy Head of the Department of Nature Management in the Agrosphere,
Institute of Agroecology and Nature Management of the NAAS of Ukraine
© Drebot Oksana Ivanivna, 2016;
NATURE MANAGEMENT ECONOMY IN UKRAINE’S FOREST-GROWING AND TIMBER INDUSTRY
The term “nature management” in its applied meaning as a “labor object” in the forest-growing branch closely connected with the timber industrial activity is studied. It is clarified that the current normative-legal acts on the forest-growing and the public discourse are directed not onto their objective context in the nature management sphere, but more onto the use of forest resources. Hence, the use of mineral raw-materials resources, which are not renewable by the economic context, is equated to the forest management, though the physical volumes of the grown wood, as well as its removal and realization, are renewable and are easily measured by quantitative parameters. The account category of land resources “forest lands and other timberlands” included 10624 thou ha or 17.6% of the area as of January 1, 2014 by the State Land Register of Ukraine (SLRU). This is a quite powerful resource for the development of the forest-growing as a productive profitable land use. But, in the SLRU, it is called “forests and other forest-covered areas”, which implies that the object of a labor and, hence, a fiscal payment is a forest, rather than the land.
In the account of land resources in the account category “lands for the forestry purpose,” the appropriate differentiation is lacking. For example, the row “forestry enterprises” includes the data on the land users with different contents of the ecological-economic purpose. The last fact excludes their applied use for the weighty evaluation and for the making of organizational-technical decisions concerning the management, including the intensification of the timber production and the associated development of the timber industry. Thus, the improvement of the content of a nature management in the forest-growing branch requires the applied comprehension and the refining of the land, forest, and taxation legislation concerning its efficient realization and financing.
Keywords: wood, land use, land, categories, forest, materials, nature management (pp. 71–82).
1. Shuck A., Paivinen R., Hytonen T., Pajari B. Compilation of forestry terms and definitions, available at: http://www.efi.int/files/attachments/publications/ir_06.pdf.
2. Drebot O.I. Instytutsionalizatsiya Lisovogo Sektora Ekonomiky v Konteksti Stalogo Rozvytku Ukrainy [Institutionalization of Economy’s Forest Sector in the Context of Ukraine’s Sustainable Development]. Kyiv, DIA, 2012 [in Ukrainian].
3. Furdychko O.I. Ekologichni Osnovy Zbalansovanogo Rozvytku Agrosfery v Konteksti Evropeis’koi Integratsii Ukrainy [Ecological Foundations of the Balanced Development of the Agrosphere in the Context of Ukraine’s European Integration]. Kyiv, DIA, 2014 [in Ukrainian].
O. M. G A R K U S H E N K O,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Senior Sci. Researcher of the Department of Financial Economic
Problems of Productive Potential Application,
Institute of Industrial Economy of the NAS of Ukraine
©Garkushenko Oksana Mykolaivna, 2916; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
NECESSITY OR TAXATION AND POLITICAL PRESSURES
The fast development of the industry and the growth of the population cause a sharp increase in the level of anthropogenic load on the natural environment (NE). To solve this problem, such organizations as UNO, Greenpeace, etc. claim the necessity of an ecological regulation of the economy, in particular, by means of the application of environmental taxes. However, the payers of those taxes consider them as an increase in the taxation pressure. Under the conditions of globalization and integrational processes, the use of environmental taxes by countries and the tax rates acquire the political color and can become an argument in the struggle of domestic producers and TNC with national governments.
Such problems are slightly discussed in the scientific literature. Therefore, the article is aimed at the analysis of conditions, under which the environmental taxes can become a tool of the political and taxation pressures, and claims the necessity of their use in view of the signed international agreements, economic and environmental situations, and possibilities of the transboard contamination.
It is established that the political and taxation pressures in the context of the application of environmental taxes are realized in three cases:
1) pressure of the great industrial capital on a government with the purpose to decrease the taxation obligations of the former;
2) pressure of the government on polluters in the case where the technico-technological limit for a decrease in the contamination is attained and the further improvement of the state of NE is impossible without essential break-throughs in the fundamental sciences and without the long-term and expensive studies in the applied sciences;
3) requirements of the countries that are leaders in the environmental regulation of the economy and in the world community as for the introduction of environmental taxes and tax rates in less “ecologically developed” countries.
At the same time, the author proves that Ukraine has the reserves to increase the rates of environmental taxes with regard for the present state of NE, situation with environmental taxes, and inclination to integrate with EU and that the assertion about the existence of the political and taxation pressures of the environmental taxes is not substantiated.
To improve the state of NE in Ukraine with regard for its economic development and the requirements of the Ukraine-EU Association Agreement, a complex of recommendations on the improvement of environmental taxation is proposed.
Keywords: ecological regulation of the economy, environmental taxes, political pressure, taxation pressure, international relations. (ðp. 83–90).
1. Vekl³ch O.A. Pervye itogi finansovo-byudzhetnoi detsentralizatsii ekologicheskogo nalogooblozheniya [First results of fiscal decentralization of environmental taxation]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2016, No. 3, pp. 60–74 [in Russian].
2. Mishchenko V.S. Ukreplenie bazy ekologicheskogo nalogooblozheniya v Ukraine: metodologiya i praktika [Strengthening the environmental taxation base in Ukraine: methodology and practice]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2016, No. 3, pp. 75–87 [in Russian].
3. Heine D., Norregaard J., Parry I. Environmental tax reform: principles from theory and practice to date. IMF Working Paper, 2012, No. WP/12/180.
4. Garkushenko O.N. Sostoyanie i perspektivy primeneniya ekologicheskikh nalogov v Ukraine [The state and perspectives of the application of environmental taxes in Ukraine]. Ekonomika Promysl. – Econ. of Industry, 2013, No. 3, pp. 37–46 [in Russian].
5. Grossman G.M., Krueger A.B. Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, 1991, No. 3914.
6. Simon J. Neischerpaemyi Resurs [The Ultimate Resource]. Chelyabinsk, Sotsium, 2009 [in Russian].
TO THE 90-TH BIRTHDAY OF G. V. DZIS’
V. V. OSKOL’S’KYI,
Professor, President of the Union of Economists of Ukraine
PERSON WORTH HIS NAME
SUMMARIES (in English)
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