V. M. H E Y E T S,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Academician of the NAS of Ukraine,
Director of the Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine,
Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Economy of Ukraine”
© Heyets Valerii Mykhailovych, 2016;
PECULIARITIES OF THE INTERRELATION OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL PRECONDITIONS OF A RECONSTRUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE’S ECONOMY
This article is a continuation of the discussion on the questions of successes and faults of the reforms executed in Ukraine for 25 years of its sovereignty, which was started in the journal “Economy of Ukraine” (No. 8, 2016). Here, we have analyzed the interrelation of economic and political preconditions, which became a prolog of transformational changes during the formation of our market economy. Basic was the political expediency, which was directed to the fracture of the political and economic system of the past by the market forces and reached a success. But the permissiveness from the side of the state and public society, which exists in parallel, created a possibility for the market forces to attain a political control over the state and to minimize, “to a certain extent,” the influence of the so-called “collective choice,” which has significantly reduced, eventually, the participation of the population in the elections of the President and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
In turn, this has formed the profound contradiction between the ensuring of a stability and the development of the economy and the society and the domination of interests of the business in the formation of state’s policy. The spontaneity of transformational changes allowed the “market power” to prevail not only over the “power of collective choice”, but, in many aspects, over the “state’s power”. This is really manifested, first of all, in the redistribution of country’s resources, including the financial ones, in interests of the business without any control from the side of the society. As a result, the country entered a series of continuous crises, which covered the economy, other sides of society’s life, political power, and political forces. The latter were periodically changed in the power, not seeking the balance of interests and the mechanisms of interaction between the state, market, and society. The domination of a political expediency and the political transformation corresponding to it became defining in many aspects.
As a result of transformational changes, the electorate started to lose the trust in democratic elections, which was revealed in a decrease in the activity of its participation against the background of the marginalization of impoverished masses and the spread of protest moods. Now, it is urgent to fill the reforms by a new content, which will allow one to consolidate the society by means of the reconstructive development of Ukraine’s economy. These questions will be the object of author’s further studies and relevant publications.
Keywords: reconstructive development, free market, market forces, forces of “collective choice”, political cycle in the economic policy, budgetary consolidation, interrelation of economic and political transformations (pp. 3–21).
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Yu. V. K I N D Z E R S ’ K Y I,
Doctor of Econ. Sci., Senior Sci. Researcher,
Department of Economic Growth and Structural Changes in Economy,
Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine
Kindzers’kyi Yurii Viktorovych, 2016; e-mail: email@example.com.
²NSTITUTIONAL TRAP OF OLIGARCHISM AND PROBLEMS OF ITS OVERCOMING
The attention is focused on problems of a transformation of the property relations in Ukraine. The necessity to follow the dualistic character in the reformation of the mentioned institution is emphasized. This concerns the changes in the access of subjects to bounded resources, on the one hand, and the redistribution of the income obtained in a society, on the other hand. In this connection, the incorrectness of a simplified approach to the reformation of the property institution as to the nominal replacement of state’s proprietor by a private is shown.
The drawbacks of the denationalization, which led to the formation of the oligarchy and the institutional trap of oligarchism, are clarified. The denationalization resulted in a strengthening of the connection of the power and the business, which caused a sharpening of the problem of soft budgetary limitations; formation of extractive political and economic institutions; autonomization of the state relative to the society; strengthening of the “front democracy”; privatization of the state by the oligarchy; formation of the phenomena of an unefficient unlegitime owner, “eroded” property rights, shadow economy, and seizure of the official state by the society.
The presence of such phenomena induces the threat of the formation of a stable unefficient long-term institutional equilibrium, deepening of the differentiation of a society by property, and increase in the risks of social cataclysms. The sources and types of nonproductive and “noninnovative” rental incomes of the oligarchy and the bureaucracy, which are caused by deformations of the property institution, are shown. The looks at the policy of deregulation of the business are critically analyzed with regard for the oligarchization and deformed property relations.
The reasons for the inefficiency of traditional tools of state’s economic policy concerning the stimulation of the activity of subjects in the presence of the “eroded” property mode and the oligarchy are indicated. The author gives some recommendations as for the versions of a reformation of the property institution, which are based on the principle of “democratization” of this institution, idea of the formation of a rational ratio of state’s and private forms of property, in particular, and the inclusive development of a society on the whole.
Keywords: oligarchy, institutional trap, privatization of the state, property rights, strategic property (ðð. 22–46).
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V. L. M A Z U R,
Professor, Doctor of Techn. Sci., Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine,
Honored Worker of Science and Technique of Ukraine,
Principal Sci. Researcher,
Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of the NAS of Ukraine
© Mazur Valerii Leonidovych, 2016; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
PROBLEMS OF THE INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN UKRAINE
By some examples of the functioning of signed enterprises of the metallurgy, machine-building, titan industry, chemical industry, and other branches of the economy, the drawbacks of Ukraine’s industrial policy, which threaten the state to be deindustrialized, are revealed. The actuality of the theme is strengthened by many times in connection with the world financial-economic crisis and the force majeure circumstances taking place in Ukraine in connection with the situation in the Donbas.
It is shown that the industrial policy is the integral and coordinated system of measures of authorities, which are aimed at the development of the industry on the whole and its separate branches, and is realized through the relevant mechanisms (stimulation, regulation, control, etc). The object of the industrial policy is not only the separate enterprises or production branches, but the whole industrial complex of the state, which should be considered as a single holistic organism.
It is shown that the industrial policy must support the enhancement of the competitiveness of commodities and services of the domestic producers on the foreign markets, i.e., it must involve the foreign economic aspects and must protect the internal market from the expansion of foreign commodities. The final purpose should be the competitiveness of the national economy in the middle- and long-term perspectives with regard for state’s security (food, defense, etc.).
It is shown that the common sign of the majority of enterprises of the machine-building is the orientation of their products onto the external markets and the traditionally strong cooperation with enterprises of the CIS. Almost all machine-building enterprises require a permanent state support. The industrial policy of Ukraine must consider these peculiarities of the machine-building complex, by being based on state’s pragmatic economic interests. It is intolerable, by using the slogans of as if fair competition, to give the orders of the Ukrainian power industry to foreign companies, which have no scientific-technical advantages over the domestic industrial leading plants.
The existence of the possibility to enhance the efficiency of the functioning of great industrial objects and industrial branches in the case where the authorities make the economically grounded decisions is shown. Some managerial measures that will ensure a support of the national interests at the realization of the industrial policy in Ukraine are proposed.
Keywords: industrial policy, economy, metallurgy, scrap metal, machine-building, power industry, chemical industry, development, personnel (pp. 47–60).
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PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC THEORY
V. P. K O L O S O V A,
Assoc. Professor, Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Director of the Department of Collaboration with International Organizations at the Ministry of Finances of Ukraine
© Kolosova Viktoriya Pavlivna, 2016;
INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS ON COUNTRY’S
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL QUESTIONS
The article is devoted to the study of theoretical approaches to the economic essence of financial resources of the international institutions and their role in the ensuring of the economic development of a country. The actuality of this problem for Ukraine is confirmed by integrational processes, the entry to international financial markets, and intensification of the collaboration with international financial organizations (IFOs).
The main scientific approaches to the effect of external financial flows on the development of countries are analyzed. The collaboration of countries with a transient economy on the starting stage of transformations with leading IFOs has played a significant role in the solution of such strategically urgent problems as the structural reconstruction of national economic complexes, systems of property and material production, introduction of efficient models of industrial technological policy, etc. The credit resources of IFOs are one of the most spread tools of the accumulation of monetary assets in national economies at the inclusion of countries-recipients into international markets of finances and capitals (which corresponds, undoubtedly, to the orientation of states to the international aspects of their development). However, it is necessary to deliberately consider the estimation of a collaboration with IFOs and the determination of advantages and shortcomings of the attraction of the credit capital of these institutions to national economies.
It is concluded that the general frame methodological-theoretic foundations of the determination of mechanisms of influence of IFOs on the development of national economies by means of the assistance to the creation of a model of inclusive development are formed.
Keywords: international financial organizations, economic development, financial aid, financial resources (pp. 61–71).
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4. Kisters’kyi L.L. Formuvannya suchasnoi Evropy: strymuvannya ta rozvytok [Formation of modern Europe: containment and development]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Ekonomika Ukrainy, 2015, No. 4, pp. 19–27 [in Ukrainian].
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SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN THE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
O. T. R Y N D Z A K,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Senior Sci. Researcher,
Department of Social Humanitarian Development of Regions,
M.I. Dolishnii Institute of Regional Studies of the NAS of Ukraine
©Ryndzak Olha Tadeivna, 2016; e-mail: email@example.com
STATE’S MIGRATORY POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF PRIORITIES OF UKRAINE’S NATIONAL SECURITY
Author’s definition of Ukraine’s migratory policy is proposed. It is emphasized that such policy should not be reduced only to the regulation of migratory transfers of the population, but it must favor the integration of migrants and internally transferred persons in the accepting socium, activate the reemigratory processes, and prevent the mass departure of the population abroad. In this connection, it is proposed to supplement the generally accepted list of functions of state’s migratory policy by the preventive function. Its essence consists in the prevention of the mass departure of the able-bodied population outside of Ukraine’s borders by means of the influence of the migratory factors, which should be revealed with the help of a system that monitors population’s migratory preferences.
The results of author’s sociological examination are presented in brief. They indicate that the main factors of population’s external migration are a low level of the payment for labor, difficulties of the employment, and aspiration to ensure a worthy living standard for children. Therefore, in order to prevent the washing-out of the most valuable human potential outside of the country, it is necessary, in the first turn, to improve the conditions of employment of the able-bodied population and the system of the payment for labor. For the persons, who have firm intention to go abroad, the state must ensure an adequate level of socio-economic protection. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize a close cooperation with those countries, first of all, that attract mostly the potential migrants.
Author’s special diagram presents the main objects of regulation of the migratory policy. For each of them, the principal purposes and tasks of authorities are determined. It is emphasized that the task of the migratory policy can be solved only under a close interaction with other directions of the state policy and in the collaboration with foreign partners.
Keywords: migration, migratory policy, functions, tasks, national security (ðð. 72–81).
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CRITIQUE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
V. O. S H E V C H U K,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Vice-Rector on Scientific-Pedagogical and Scientific Work,
National Academy of Statistics, Account, and Audit
© Shevchuk Volodymyr Oleksandrovych, 2016;
ACCOUNTING DIMENSION OF A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF THE MODERN BUSINESS (ðð. 82–83).
1. Korol’ S.Ya. Sotsial’na Vidpovidal’nist’ Biznesu: Teoriya ta Metodologiya Obliku [Social Responsibility of Business: Theory and Methodology of Its Account]. Kyiv, Kyiv. Nat. Trade-Econ. Univ., 2016 [in Ukrainian].
To the memory of I.P. Vusyk
To the memory of Professor, Doctor of Economic Science A.F. Pavlenko
SUMMARIES (in English)
Contents of the journal for 2016
EDITORIAL POLICY AND ETHIC PRINCIPLES
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