¹ 9-10, 2019Êiëüêiñòü ïåðåãëÿäiâ: 99
C O N T E N T S, No. 9-10, 2019
UDC 338:339:669.1 (477)
O L E K S A N D R A M O S H A,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Academician of the NAS of Ukraine,
© Amosha Oleksandr, 2019;
V I R A N I K I F O R O V A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Doctoral student,
© Nikiforova Vira, 2019;
Institute of Industrial Economics of the NAS of Ukraine,
2, Mariyi Kapnist St., Kyiv, 03057, Ukraine
DEVELOPMENT OF SMART STEEL INDUSTRY:
WORLD EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS FOR UKRAINE
The key directions of development of Ukraine’s steel industry on the smart basis are determined taking into account the world experience of steel smart production formation. The prerequisites and problems of the smart steel industry development in Ukraine are considered. It is determined that the process of working out and implementation of smart technologies in the industry is at the initial stage, despite its strategic nature for the national economy. The reasons are the general backlog of Ukraine and domestic steel industry in terms of innovation activity, significant volume of metal overproduction and critically low levels of domestic consumption of steel products, and the imperfection of regulatory framework of the industry activity.
The features and consequences of smart solutions and technologies implementation in the steel industry of foreign countries are generalized. The main directions of emerging technologies use in the production, organizational, economic and social areas of steel enterprises are researched. It is revealed that, in comparison with the world analogs, only a part of smart technologies widely known in leading metal-producing countries are used in Ukraine’s steel industry. However, the main trends of the industry’s smartization are mostly similar, and they are in the digitalization of products and services, strengthening of customer focus of the business model, optimization of equipment operation and improvement of conditions and safety of work in real time.
It is determined that the “bottleneck” of smart technologies implementation is the manufacturing sector due to the need for large investments to implement a fundamentally new innovative discoveries for improving the metallurgical process. The restraining factor is the social sphere because of the employees’ unwillingness to perceive a new digital culture and changes in the labor market.
Keywords: steel industry; smart production; smart technology; world experience; production, organizational, economic and social areas of steel enterprises; “bottlenecks”; restraining factors (ðð. 3–23).
References 27; Figure 1; Table 1.
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The article was received by the Editorial staff on May 30, 2019.
GOVERNING THE ECONOMY: THEORY AND PRACTICE
V I T A L I I V E N G E R,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Senior Researcher,
Leading Researcher of the Department of Sectoral Forecasting
and Market Conjuncture,
© Venger Vitalii, 2019;
V O L O D Y M Y R K H A U S T O V,
Cand. of Techn. Sci., Scientific Secretary
© Khaustov Volodymyr, 2019;
Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine,
26, Panasa Myrnoho St., Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine
CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS
OF UKRAINE’S METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY:
GUIDELINES OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION
Current trends in economic development indicate that the basis of the economy of many developed countries is the basic industries, including ferrous metallurgy, and its products continue to be the main construction material in the world.
The authors show that the domestic metallurgical industry contributes significantly to the gross national product and foreign trade. The main source of the functioning of domestic metallurgical enterprises is the raw material base sustained by significant reserves of iron ore, coal and scrap metal.
It is proved that the metallurgical industry’s priority orientation to external demand made it dependent on the conditions in the world metal products market, which today is characterized by fierce competition due to the constant growth of new production capacities.
It is revealed that the main prerequisite for increasing competition in the world metal market is currently the innovative restructuring of metallurgical enterprises based on the reduction of obsolete steel production facilities and the construction of new, more compact ones for the production of high value-added end products.
The authors show that, unlike developed and developing countries, Ukraine has not built any technologically new facilities (except for the Interpipe Steel plant) in the steel industry. As a result, the majority of domestic enterprises are experiencing a significant physical and moral equipment wear and tear. The use of outdated technologies in the industry is causing enormous energy intensity of environmentally harmful production and leads to inefficient consumption of fuel and energy resources, and, as a consequence, to lower competitiveness of domestic metal products.
To develop domestic metallurgy in line with global trends, it is proposed to develop a list of measures for the phased modernization of production capacities, which include replacing obsolete open-hearth furnaces with new electro-metallurgical plants.
Keywords: innovative restructuring of the world metallurgical industry; technological modernization; electro-metallurgical plants; production capacity; production of metal products; export of metal products (ðð. 24–43).
References 10; Figures 8; Tables 10.
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2. Venger V.V. Analiz tekhnolohichnoi struktury metalurhiinykh pidpryemstv Ukrainy [Analysis of technological structure of metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine]. Aktual’ni problemy ekonomiky – Actual problems of economics, 2007, No. 12, pp. 31–41 [in Ukrainian].
3. Venger V., Osipov V. Vnutrishnii rynok yak factor rozvytku metalurhiinoi haluzi Ukrainy [Domestic market as a development factor for Ukraine’s metal industry]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2017, No. 3, pp. 69–84 [in Ukrainian].
4. Ostashko T., Lir V., Venger V., Olefir V., Bykonia O. Zmina tradytsiinykh pozytsii ukrains’koho eksportu [A change in the traditional items of Ukraine’s export]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2017, No. 2, pp. 57–74 [in Ukrainian].
5. Shevelev L.N. Mirovaya Chernaya Metallurgiya 1950–2000 gg. (Restrukturizatsiya, Kachestvo, Privatizatsiya) [World Ferrous Metallurgy 1950–2000 (Restructuring, Quality, Privatization)]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1999 [in Russian].
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7. Venger V., Osipov V. Strukturni zminy u svitovii torhivli metaloproduktsieyu ta ikh vplyv na rozvytok metalurhiinoi haluzi Ukrainy [Structural changes in the world metal trade and their impact on the development of Ukraine’s metallurgy]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2016, No. 3, pp. 77–93 [in Ukrainian].
8. Glushchenko A. Chomu hal’muyut’ peredovi tekhnolohii [Why progressive technology slows down]. Holos Ukrainy – Voice of Ukraine, No. 61, 2019, available at: http://www.golos.com.ua/article/315390 [in Ukrainian].
9. Perspektivy Energeticheskikh Tekhnologii. V Podderzhku Plana Deistvii “Gruppy Vos’mi”. Stsenarii i Strategii do 2050 g. [Prospects for Energy Technology. In Support of the G8 Action Plan. Scenarios and Strategies until 2050]. A. Kokorin, T. Muratov (Eds.). Moscow, OECD/IEA, WWF Russia, 2007 [in Russian].
10. Dyachuk O., Chepelev M., Podolets’ R., Trypol’ska G. et al. Perekhid Ukrainy na Vidnovlyuval’nu Energetyku do 2050 roku [Ukraine’s Transition to Renewable Energy by 2050]. Yu. Oharenko, O. Alieva (Eds.). Kyiv, “ART KNYHA” Ltd, 2017 [in Ukrainian].
The article was received by the Editorial staff on February 21, 2019.
JEL: Î40, O43, O47
O L E H P U S T O V O I T,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Leading Researcher of the Department
of Sectoral Forecasting and Market Conjuncture
Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine,
26, Panasa Myrnoho St., Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine
© Pustovoit Oleh, 2019;
INTANGIBLE RESOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH
In today’s economic science, more and more empirical evidence is accumulating that in some developed countries, intangible capital investments coincide or outperform investment in tangibles such as machinery, equipment and buildings. It enables such countries to maintain a high level of competitiveness on world markets and provide sustainable economic dynamics. After the restoration of economic growth in Ukraine in 2016, in front of domestic science arose an important task, namely, to identify what types of intangible capital Ukrainian enterprises are increasingly investing in to win a competitive struggle in the domestic and foreign markets. One of the backgrounds for its implementation is the search for answers to the following theoretical questions: what are the intangible resources, what types of intangible resources exist in the economy, how do they affect economic growth, and how to estimate their aggregate contribution?
In the article, the concept of “intangible resources” is proposed to generalize assets that do not have physical or financial embodiment and are used to eliminate natural, technical and social restraints and constraints of the mobility of factors of production in the process of creating their new combinations in order to release new types of products. This scientific approach makes it possible to systematize all the diversity of intangible resources within six species groups that form the main types of intangible capital in the economy: human, institutional, social, informational and legal, organizational cultural and organizational capital. It is determined that institutional capital has the ability to create conditions for multiplying stocks of all other types of intangible capital. The author substantiates the methodology for assessing the main types of intangible capital for the economic growth of developing countries. Using this methodology the dynamics of GDP as a function of material (labor, land, capital) and intangible resources is studied.
Keywords: economic growth; intangible resources; mobility of factors of production; restraints of factor mobility; total factor productivity (ðð. 44–67).
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39. Pustovoit O.V. Instytutsiina Pryroda Ekonomichnykh Tsykliv. Dosvid Ukrainy [The Institutional Nature of Economic Cycles. Experience of Ukraine]. Kyiv, Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine, 2016 [in Ukrainian].
40. Pustovoit O.V. Ekonomichne zrostannya Ukrainy: problemy ta mozhlyvosti pryskorennya [Economic growth in Ukraine: problems and revival prospects]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2017, No. 4, pp. 71–92 [in Ukrainian].
41. Surroca J., Tribó J.A., Waddock S. Corporate responsibility and financial performance: the role of intangible resources. Strategic Management Journal, 2010, Vol. 31, Iss. 5, pp. 463–490, available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/smj.820.
The article was received by the Editorial staff on June 11, 2019.
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE NATURE MANAGEMENT
M A R I A I L I N A,
Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
of the Department of Problems of Land and Forest Resources Economy
© Ilina Maria, 2019;
Y U L I A S H P Y L I O V A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
of the Department of Problems of Land and Forest Resources Economy
© Shpyliova Yulia, 2019;
Institute of Environmental Economics
and Sustainable Development of the NAS of Ukraine,
60, Taras Shevchenko Blvd., Kyiv, 01032, Ukraine
OF RURAL AREAS’ ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Low standards of people’s living and economic depression in rural areas in Ukraine make it difficult to achieve the systemic integrity of economic, social and environmental components of the sustainable development. The imbalance between these components causes worsening of the environmental harms and deteriorates conditions for the human capital’s reproduction. The purpose of the article is to substantiate with theoretical and practical means the content and structure of social and ecological imperatives, which are represented as norms and standards relating to economic activities aiming to improve the policy of natural resources use and protect the ecosystem’s integrity of the territories.
Economic imperatives reflect a set of rules applied to all economic entities operating within the current regulatory framework. It takes into account various factors and immanent actions. Key challenges, which are most urgent for a society at a certain time and form guidelines for solving problems of social relations and interactions, determine structure and content of social imperatives. Ecological imperatives regulate anthropogenic activity formally and informally and cause changes in the natural environment. They are dynamic and can vary depending on the level of the development of a society, its technologies, welfare, and institutional framework. Laws and principles of the development, summarized in the form of the imperatives, outline the target benchmarks and national priorities on modernization of the economy and improvement of living standards.
Spatial differentiation of the territories takes into account their proximity to urban centers, the degree of economic capacity, the availability of social infrastructure of the proper quality, and meeting environmental standards. One more significant parameter is the availability of assets, which are defined as a set of resources of a territory, the potential and opportunities for their use. The achievement of the national priorities in Ukraine currently is complicated with inefficient use of territorial assets. Social and ecological imperatives are the solid value and normative ground for the development of local policy. One of its obvious steps is the mutually linked differentiation of the priorities, types of the territories and available assets of them.
Keywords: social-ecological imperative; rural area; economic activity; national priority; asset; spatial differentiation; economic development (ðð. 68–78).
References 15; Figure 1; Table 1.
1. Moiseev N.N. Sovremennyi Antropogenez i Tsyvilizatsyonnye Razlomy (Ekologo-Politologicheskii Analiz) [Modern Anthropogenesis and Civilizational Faults (Ecological and Political Analysis)]. Moscow, PH of MNEPU, 1994 [in Russian].
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4. Moe-Lobeda C.D. Healing a Broken World: Globalization and God. Minneapolis, Fortress Press, 2002.
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6. Stolyarchuk Ya.M. Global’ni Asymetrii Ekonomichnoho Rozvytku [Global Asymmetries of Economic Development]. Kyiv, KNEU, 2009 [in Ukrainian].
7. Woodward R. ‘Deprivation’ and ‘the rural’: an investigation into contradictory discourses. Journal of Rural Studies, 1996, Vol. 12 (1), pp. 55–67.
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14. Kostiuk V.O. Prykladna Statystyka [Applied Statistics]. Kharkiv, KhNUMH named after O.M. Beketov, 2015 [in Ukrainian].
15. Ilina M.V., Shpyliova Yu.B. Metodolohichnyi pidkhid do prostorovoi dyferentsiatsii sil’s’kykh terytorii Ukrainy [Methodological approach to spatial differentiation of rural territories of Ukraine]. Naukovyi visnyk KhDU. Ser.: Ekonomichni nauky – Scientific Bulletin of the KhSU. Ser.: Economic Sciences, 2018, Iss. 31, pp. 63–67 [in Ukrainian].
The article was received by the Editorial staff on April 8, 2019.
SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
O L H A R Y N D Z A K,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Senior Researcher of the Department of Problems
of Social and Humanitarian Development of the Regions
Institute of Regional Research named after M. I. Dolishniy
of the NAS of Ukraine,
4, Kozelnytska St., Lviv, 79026, Ukraine
© Ryndzak Olha, 2019;
INHIBITION OF MIGRATION LOSSES OF THE HUMAN POTENTIAL OF UKRAINE
Intensification of migration processes poses new challenges and tasks to the migration policy of Ukraine. One of the most acute problems at present is the mass emigration of the able-bodied population, especially highly educated youth, outside the country. The author’s concept of inhibition (slowing down) of human potential losses is proposed. It involves active migration policy measures in such directions: reduction of the emigration flows, stimulation of the external return migration and strengthening the internal migration of the population. At the same time, the ways of implementing each of these blocks are highlighted. Thus, it is possible to reduce the rate of emigration by regulating its factors. Two of these factors are analyzed: wages and unemployment. The author concludes it is necessary to gradually increase the level of wages, however, not mechanically but accompanied by a set of reforms. Regarding the problems of unemployment, a model of the mechanism for employment stimulation, involving a set of policy measures aimed at all subjects of the labor market, is developed. The stimulation of the external return migration, circular migration, re-immigration and repatriation involves: programs for encouraging and facilitating return and integration; financial, economic and organizational mechanisms for reciprocity provision; assistance in the employment of re-immigrants; pension settlement for circular migrants etc. To intensify internal migration (as a powerful alternative to external), it is necessary: to reduce administrative obstacles on the way of internal movements of the population; to create favorable conditions for realization the right to freedom of movement; to intensify interregional human exchange and cooperation; to develop measures for internal migration stimulation; to improve transport networks. Along with the socio-economic inhibitors, it is also necessary to apply mental factors, which can affect the migration behavior of the population. The author’s proposals, covered in the article, can become the basis for solving the problem of migration losses of human potential and for increasing the efficiency of the migration policy of Ukraine.
Keywords: migration; circular migration; migration policy; wages; employment (ðð. 79–91).
References 16; Figures 2; Table 1.
1. Novyi Slovnyk Inshomovnykh Sliv [New Dictionary of Foreign Language Words]. L.I. Shevchenko (Ed.). Kyiv, ARII, 2008 [in Ukrainian].
2. Olesen H. Migration, return and development: an institutional perspective. International Migration, 2002, No. 40 (5), pp. 125–150.
3. Zubko G. Zarplata u rozmiri 16 tysyach hryven’ dast’ mozhlyvist’ vtrymaty lyudei v Ukraini [A salary of 16 thousand hryvnia will help to keep people in Ukraine], available at: https://lb.ua/news/2017/12/22/385598_gennadiy_zubko_zarplata_rozmiri.html [in Ukrainian].
4. Zvyagil’s’kyi Yu.L. Riven’ zarobitnoi platy – indykator efektyvnosti programy ekonomichnykh reform [Level of wages is an indicator of the efficiency of the program of economic reforms]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2013, No. 9, pp. 73–84 [in Ukrainian].
5. Khaustova E., Marynchenko I. Problemy zarobitnoi platy v Ukraini ta shlyakhy ikh vyrishennya [Problems of wages in the Ukraine and ways of their decision]. Mizhnarodnyi zhurnal «Internauka» – Scientific Journal «Internauka», 2015, No. 9, pp. 159–163 [in Ukrainian].
6. Pavlovs’kyi A. Reforma oplaty pratsi: problemy i perspektyvy [Remuneration reform: challenges and prospects], available at: https://blog.liga.net/user/apavlovskiy/article/31535 [in Ukrainian].
7. Malynovs’ka O.A. Migratsiina Polityka: Global’nyi Kontekst ta Ukrains’ki Realii [Migration Policy: Global Context and Ukrainian Realities]. Kyiv, NISS, 2018 [in Ukrainian].
8. Gaiduts’kyi A. Borot’ba za migrantiv. Ukraini pryhotuvatysya [The fight for migrants. Ukraine get ready], available at: https://dt.ua/internal/borotba-za-migrantiv-ukrayini-prigotuvatisya-289703_.html/?action=sort&sort=popular&slice=0&limit=20 [in Ukrainian].
9. Makhonyuk O.V. Migratsiini oblihatsii yak instrument neinflyatsiinoho finansuvannya natsional’noi ekonomiky: prykhovani ryzyky s’ohodennya [Migration bonds as a tool of the non-inflationary financing of the national economy: hidden risks of present]. Rehional’na ekonomika – Regional economy, 2013, No. 4 (70), pp. 117–129 [in Ukrainian].
10. Malynovs’ka O.A. Suchasna migratsiya ukraintsiv do Pol’shchi ta pov”yazani z neyu vyklyky [Contemporary migration of Ukrainians to Poland and its related challenges], available at: http://old2.niss.gov.ua/content/articles/files/migrats_Pol-fbd2a.pdf [in Ukrainian].
11. Gnatyuk T.O. Dobrovil’na zvorotna migratsiya: dosvid krain ES ta perspektyvy Ukrainy [Voluntary return migration: experience of the EU countries and prospects of Ukraine]. Naukovi pratsi Chornomors’koho derzhavnoho universytetu imeni Petra Mohyly. Ser.: Politolohiya – Proceedings of the Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University. Ser.: Political sciences, 2011, Vol. 175, Iss. 163, pp. 22–25 [in Ukrainian].
12. Malinovs’ka O.A. Tsyrkulyarna migratsiya – politychna moda chy perspektyvna model’ migratsiinoho menedzhmentu? [The circular migration – is this a political fashion or the prospective model of the migration management?]. Demografiya ta sotsial’na ekonomika – Demography and social economy, 2011, No. 2 (16), pp. 95–104 [in Ukrainian].
13. Agunias D., Newland K. Circular migration and development: trends, policy routes, and ways forward. Migration Policy Institute, available at: https://www.eldis.org/document/A31498.
14. Markov I., Seleshchuk H., Savchynskyi R., Ivankova-Stetsyk O., Odynets S. Tsyrkulyarna migratsiya: novi pidkhody do staroi kontseptsii [Circular migration: new approaches to the old concept], available at: http://social-anthropology.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Circulatory_migration_book.pdf [in Ukrainian].
15. Malynovs’ka O.A. Vnutrishnya migratsiya ta tymchasovi peremishchennya v Ukraini v umovakh politychnykh ta sotsial’no-ekonomichnykh zagroz [Internal migration and temporary displacement in Ukraine in the face of political and socio-economic threats], available at: http://old2.niss.gov.ua/content/articles/files/vnutrishnya_migratsia-45aa1.pdf [in Ukrainian].
16. Vovkanych S. «Zapanuyem u svoii storontsi»: chomu ukraintsi mayut’ eksklyuzyvne pravo na natsional’nu derzhavu [«We will further rule and prosper in our promised land»: why Ukrainians have the exclusive right to a nation-state], available at: https://www.umoloda.kiev.ua/number/3416/188/130080/ [in Ukrainian].
The article was received by the Editorial staff on March 13, 2019.
SUMMARIES (pp. 91-94)
EDITORIAL POLICY AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES (pp. 95-96)
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