¹ 9-10, 2019

Êiëüêiñòü ïåðåãëÿäiâ: 99
C O N T E N T S, No. 9-10, 2019 

UDC 338:339:669.1 (477)
O L E K S A N D R   A M O S H A,
Professor, Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Academician of the NAS of Ukraine,
© Amosha Oleksandr, 2019; 

V I R A   N I K I F O R O V A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Doctoral student,
Senior Researcher 
© Nikiforova Vira, 2019; 

Institute of Industrial Economics of the NAS of Ukraine,
2, Mariyi Kapnist St., Kyiv, 03057, Ukraine

The key directions of development of Ukraine’s steel industry on the smart basis are determined taking into account the world experience of steel smart production formation. The prerequisites and problems of the smart steel industry development in Ukraine are considered. It is determined that the process of working out and implementation of smart technologies in the industry is at the initial stage, despite its strategic nature for the national economy. The reasons are the general backlog of Ukraine and domestic steel industry in terms of innovation activity, significant volume of metal overproduction and critically low levels of domestic consumption of steel products, and the imperfection of regulatory framework of the industry activity.
The features and consequences of smart solutions and technologies implementation in the steel industry of foreign countries are generalized. The main directions of emerging technologies use in the production, organizational, economic and social areas of steel enterprises are researched. It is revealed that, in comparison with the world analogs, only a part of smart technologies widely known in leading metal-producing countries are used in Ukraine’s steel industry. However, the main trends of the industry’s smartization are mostly similar, and they are in the digitalization of products and services, strengthening of customer focus of the business model, optimization of equipment operation and improvement of conditions and safety of work in real time.
It is determined that the “bottleneck” of smart technologies implementation is the manufacturing sector due to the need for large investments to implement a fundamentally new innovative discoveries for improving the metallurgical process. The restraining factor is the social sphere because of the employees’ unwillingness to perceive a new digital culture and changes in the labor market.

Keywords: steel industry; smart production; smart technology; world experience; production, organizational, economic and social areas of steel enterprises; “bottlenecks”; restraining factors  (ðð. 3–23).
References 27; Figure 1; Table 1.
1. Mori L., Saleh T., Sellschop R., Van Hoey M. Unlocking the digital opportunity in metals, available at: : 
2. Groeneweg S. Tracking steel using blockchain, available at:,%20Tracking%20Steel%20using%20BlockChain.pdf.
3. Ferneyhough G. Steel rises to the challenges of Industry 4.0, available at: 
4. Jha S. Digital transformation initiatives in mining & metals – the Tata Steel approach, available at: 
5. Venher V.V. Naukovo-tekhnolohichna skladova innovatsiinykh peretvoren’ v metalurhiinii haluzi Ukrainy [Scientific and technological component of innovative reforms in Ukraine’s steel industry]. Naukovyi visnyk Mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu. Seriya: Ekonomika i menedzhment – Scientific Visnyk of the International Humanitarian University. Ser.: Economics and Management, 2017, Iss. 24, Part 1, pp. 43–47 [in Ukrainian].
6. Khaustov V., Venher V. Metalurhiya Ukrainy: kudy idemo? [Metallurgy of Ukraine: where we go?]. Dzerkalo tyzhnya – Week’s Mirror, March 29, 2019, available at: [in Ukrainian]. 
7. Kindzers’kyi Yu.V. Antykryzova promyslova polityka: variant vitchyznyanoho kontseptu [Anti-crisis industrial policy: version of domestic concept]. Visnyk Natsional’noi akademii nauk Ukrainy – Visnyk of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2016, No. 10, pp. 29–42 [in Ukrainian]. 
8. Bolshakov V.I., Tuboltsev L.G. Chorna metalurhiya i natsional’na bezpeka Ukrainy [Ferrous metals and national security of Ukraine]. Visnyk Natsional’noi akademii nauk Ukrainy – Visnyk of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2014, No. 9, pp. 48–58 [in Ukrainian]. 
9.  Babachenko A.I., Tuboltsev L.G. Iron and steel institute of the NAS of Ukraine. Scientific and technical support of black metallurgy. Fundamental’nye i prikladnye problemy chernoi metallurgii – Fundamental and applied problems of ferrous metallurgy, 2017, Iss. 31, pp. 3–9.
10. Mazur V.L. Problemy promyslovoi polityky v Ukraini [Problems of the industrial policy in Ukraine]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2016, No. 11, pp. 3–18 [in Ukrainian]. 
11. Mazur V.L., Tymoshenko M.V. Analiz uryadovykh program pidtrymky metalurgii Ukrainy [Analysis of state’s support programs of Ukraine’s metallurgy]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2013, No. 8, pp. 22–32 [in Ukrainian]. 
12. Khyzhnyak O.S. Suchasnyi stan metalurhiinykh pidpryemstv Ukrainy: problemy i perspektyvy rozvytku [The current state of metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine: problems and prospects of development]. Molodyi vchenyi – Young Scientist, 2017, No. 5 (45), pp. 762–768 [in Ukrainian]. 
13. Vlasiuk Ò.Î. Metalurhiina haluz’ Ukrainy na svitovomu rynku: problemy ta priorytety [Ukrainian metallurgy at the global market: problems and priorities]. Naukovyi visnyk Natsional’noi akademii statystyky, obliku ta audytu – Scientific bulletin of the national academy of statistics, accounting and audit, 2016, Iss. 3, pp. 91–103 [in Ukrainian]. 
14.  Obolenska T., Dovgan D. Ukraina na svitovomu rynku chornykh metaliv [Ukraine at the world’s ferrous metals market]. Visnyk L’vivs’koho universytetu. Seriya: Mizhnarodni vidnosyny – Visnyk of the Lviv University. Ser.: International Relations, 2015, Iss. 36, Part 3, pp. 169–176 [in Ukrainian]. 
15. Lyzunova O.N. Upravlinnya enerhetychnoyu skladovoyu metalurhiinoho pidpryemstva [The energy management component of the metallurgical enterprises]. Molodyi vchenyi – Young Scientist, 2017, No. 3 (43), pp. 784–787 [in Ukrainian]. 
16. Kataev O.O. Dosvid i perspektyvy enerhozberezhennya resursomistkykh pidpryemstv hirnycho-metalurhiinoho kompleksu Ukrainy [Experience and prospects of the energy saving at the resource-consuming enterprises of Ukraine’s mining-metallurgical complex]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2013, No. 9, pp. 18–30 [in Ukrainian].
17. Solokha D. Marketynhovi vazheli ekolohizatsii eksportoorientovanoho segmentu zbutu produktsii metalurhiinykh pidpryemstv Ukrainy [Marketing levers of greening the export-oriented sales segment of products of metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine]. Visnyk ekonomichnoi nauky Ukrainy – Herald of the Economic Sciences of Ukraine, 2016, No. 1, pp. 134–138 [in Ukrainian].
18. Vyshnevs’kyi V.P., Knyazev S.I. Smart promyslovist’: perspektyvy i problemy [Smart Industry: prospects and challenges]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2017, No. 7, pp. 22–37 [in Ukrainian].
19. Amosha O.I., Nikiforova V.A. Svitovyi dosvid stanovlennya metalurhiinykh smart-vyrobnytstv: osoblyvosti, napryamy, naslidky [World experience of steel smart productions development: features, trends, consequences]. Ekonomika promyslovosti –Economy of Industry, 2019, No. 2, pp. 84–106 [in Ukrainian].
20. Jamrisko M., Miller L.J., Lu W. These are the world’s most innovative countries, available at:
21. Yurchak O. Globalizatsiya – klientotsentrichnost’ – gorizontal’naya integratsiya [Globalization – customer-centricity – horizontal integration], available at: [in Russian].
22. Pineda I., Fraile D., Tardieu P. Breaking new ground. Wind energy and the electrification of Europe’s energy system, available at:
23. Dubrovyk-Rokhova A. “Didzhytalizatsiya – tse lyshe pochatok”. Valerii Fishchuk: “Naiefektyvnishyi metod prynesty mozhlyvosti mista v selo – pidklyuchyty selo do internetu” [“Digitization is just the beginning.” Valerii Fishchuk: “The most effective method to bring the city’s capabilities to the village is to connect the village to the Internet”]. Den’ – Day, April 12, 2018, available at: [in Ukrainian].
24. Iliushchenko O.F., Savich V.V. Istoriya i sovremennoe sostoyanie additivnykh tekhnologii v Belorusi: poroshki metallov i splavy dlya nikh [Additive technologies, powders of metals and alloys for them. History and current production state in Belarus]. Kosmichna nauka i tekhnolohiya – Space science and technology, 2017, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 33–45 [in Russian].
25. Chalabyan A., Jänsch E., Niemann T., Otto T., Zeumer B., Zhuravleva K. How 3-D printing will transform the metals industry, available at: 
26. Mordashov A. Aleksei Mordashov: kak Industriya 4.0 menyaet upravlenie [Alexey Mordashov: how Industry 4.0 changes management], available at: [in Russian].
27. Berdinskikh A. Yurii Ryzhenkov: “Konkurentsiya na rynke obostryaetsya” [Yuriy Ryzhenkov: “The competition in the market is growing”], available at: [in Russian].
The article was received by the Editorial staff on May 30, 2019.

UDC 330.1
V I T A L I I   V E N G E R,
Cand. of Econ. Sci., Senior Researcher,
Leading Researcher of the Department of Sectoral Forecasting
 and Market Conjuncture,
© Venger Vitalii, 2019;

V O L O D Y M Y R   K H A U S T O V,
Cand. of Techn. Sci., Scientific Secretary
© Khaustov Volodymyr, 2019;

Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine,
26, Panasa Myrnoho St., Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine


Current trends in economic development indicate that the basis of the economy of many developed countries is the basic industries, including ferrous metallurgy, and its products continue to be the main construction material in the world.
The authors show that the domestic metallurgical industry contributes significantly to the gross national product and foreign trade. The main source of the functioning of domestic metallurgical enterprises is the raw material base sustained by significant reserves of iron ore, coal and scrap metal.
It is proved that the metallurgical industry’s priority orientation to external demand made it dependent on the conditions in the world metal products market, which today is characterized by fierce competition due to the constant growth of new production capacities.
It is revealed that the main prerequisite for increasing competition in the world metal market is currently the innovative restructuring of metallurgical enterprises based on the reduction of obsolete steel production facilities and the construction of new, more compact ones for the production of high value-added end products.
The authors show that, unlike developed and developing countries, Ukraine has not built any technologically new facilities (except for the Interpipe Steel plant) in the steel industry. As a result, the majority of domestic enterprises are experiencing a significant physical and moral equipment wear and tear. The use of outdated technologies in the industry is causing enormous energy intensity of environmentally harmful production and leads to inefficient consumption of fuel and energy resources, and, as a consequence, to lower  competitiveness of domestic metal products.
To develop domestic metallurgy in line with global trends, it is proposed to develop a list of measures for the phased modernization of production capacities, which include replacing obsolete open-hearth furnaces with new electro-metallurgical plants.

Keywords: innovative restructuring of the world metallurgical industry; technological modernization; electro-metallurgical plants; production capacity; production of metal products; export of metal products (ðð. 24–43).
References 10; Figures 8; Tables 10.
1. Tochylin V., Venger V. Vertykal’no-integrovani struktury hirnycho-metalurhiinoho kompleksu Ukrainy: stan ta napryamy rozvytku [Vertically integrated structures of Ukraine’s mining-and-metallurgical complex condition and development guidelines]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2008, No. 3, pp. 70–86 [in Ukrainian].
2. Venger V.V. Analiz tekhnolohichnoi struktury metalurhiinykh pidpryemstv Ukrainy [Analysis of technological structure of metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine]. Aktual’ni problemy ekonomiky – Actual problems of economics, 2007, No. 12, pp. 31–41 [in Ukrainian].
3. Venger V., Osipov V. Vnutrishnii rynok yak factor rozvytku metalurhiinoi haluzi Ukrainy [Domestic market as a development factor for Ukraine’s metal industry]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2017, No. 3, pp. 69–84 [in Ukrainian].
4. Ostashko T., Lir V., Venger V., Olefir V., Bykonia O. Zmina tradytsiinykh pozytsii ukrains’koho eksportu [A change in the traditional items of Ukraine’s export]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2017, No. 2, pp. 57–74 [in Ukrainian].
5. Shevelev L.N. Mirovaya Chernaya Metallurgiya 1950–2000 gg. (Restrukturizatsiya, Kachestvo, Privatizatsiya) [World Ferrous Metallurgy 1950–2000 (Restructuring, Quality, Privatization)]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1999 [in Russian].
6. Venger V., Tochylin V. Konkurentsiya ta konkurenty na rehional’nykh rynkakh chornykh metaliv [Competition and competitors on the regional markets of ferrous metals]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2013, No. 1, pp. 81–96 [in Ukrainian].
7. Venger V., Osipov V. Strukturni zminy u svitovii torhivli metaloproduktsieyu ta ikh vplyv na rozvytok metalurhiinoi haluzi Ukrainy [Structural changes in the world metal trade and their impact on the development of Ukraine’s metallurgy]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2016, No. 3, pp. 77–93 [in Ukrainian].
8. Glushchenko A. Chomu hal’muyut’ peredovi tekhnolohii [Why progressive technology slows down]. Holos Ukrainy – Voice of Ukraine, No. 61, 2019, available at: [in Ukrainian].
9. Perspektivy Energeticheskikh Tekhnologii. V Podderzhku Plana Deistvii “Gruppy Vos’mi”. Stsenarii i Strategii do 2050 g. [Prospects for Energy Technology. In Support of the G8 Action Plan. Scenarios and Strategies until 2050]. A. Kokorin, T. Muratov (Eds.). Moscow, OECD/IEA, WWF Russia, 2007 [in Russian].
10. Dyachuk O., Chepelev M., Podolets’ R., Trypol’ska G. et al. Perekhid Ukrainy na Vidnovlyuval’nu Energetyku do 2050 roku [Ukraine’s Transition to Renewable Energy by 2050]. Yu. Oharenko, O. Alieva (Eds.). Kyiv, “ART KNYHA” Ltd, 2017 [in Ukrainian].
The article was received by the Editorial staff on February 21, 2019.
UDC 330.354:338.312]:330.35
JEL: Î40, O43, O47
O L E H   P U S T O V O I T, 
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Leading Researcher of the Department
of Sectoral Forecasting and Market Conjuncture
Institute for Economics and Forecasting of the NAS of Ukraine,
26, Panasa Myrnoho St., Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine
© Pustovoit Oleh, 2019; 

In today’s economic science, more and more empirical evidence is accumulating that in some developed countries, intangible capital investments coincide or outperform investment in tangibles such as machinery, equipment and buildings. It enables such countries to maintain a high level of competitiveness on world markets and provide sustainable economic dynamics. After the restoration of economic growth in Ukraine in 2016, in front of domestic science arose an important task, namely, to identify what types of intangible capital Ukrainian enterprises are increasingly investing in to win a competitive struggle in the domestic and foreign markets. One of the backgrounds for its implementation is the search for answers to the following theoretical questions: what are the intangible resources, what types of intangible resources exist in the economy, how do they affect economic growth, and how to estimate their aggregate contribution?
In the article, the concept of “intangible resources” is proposed to generalize assets that do not have physical or financial embodiment and are used to eliminate natural, technical and social restraints and constraints of the mobility of factors of production in the process of creating their new combinations in order to release new types of products. This scientific approach makes it possible to systematize all the diversity of intangible resources within six species groups that form the main types of intangible capital in the economy: human, institutional, social, informational and legal, organizational cultural and organizational capital. It is determined that institutional capital has the ability to create conditions for multiplying stocks of all other types of intangible capital. The author substantiates the methodology for assessing the main types of intangible capital for the economic growth of developing countries. Using this methodology the dynamics of GDP as a function of material (labor, land, capital) and intangible resources is studied.

Keywords: economic growth; intangible resources; mobility of factors of production; restraints of factor mobility; total factor productivity (ðð. 44–67).
References 41; Tables 2; Formulas 3.
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5. Mankiv N.G., Romer D., Weil D.N. A contribution to the empirics of economic growth. The Quarterly Journal of economics, 1992, Vol. 107, pp. 407–438, available at: .
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9. Warren K. Building Strategy and Performance. London, Saylor Foundation, available at: pdf. 
10. Corrado C., Hulten C., Sichel D. Intangible capital and economic growth, available at: .
11. Bourdieu P. Formy kapitala [Forms of capital]. Ekonomicheskaya sotsiologiya – Economic sociology, 2002, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 60–74, available at: [in Russian].
12. Kozenkova V.D. Vyznachennya, vymiryuvannya, otsinka nematerial’nykh aktyviv: zarubizhnyi dosvid ta praktyka v Ukraini [Definition, measurement and evaluation of intangible assets: foreign experience and practices in Ukraine]. Ekonomichnyi visnyk – Economics Bulletin, 2018, No. 2, pp. 134–145, available at: [in Ukrainian].
13. Diefenbach Ò. Intangible resources: a categorial system of knowledge and other intangible assets. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2006, Vol. 7, Iss. 3, pp. 406–420. DOI:10.1108/14691930610681483.
14. Corrado Ñ., Haskel J., Jona-Lasinio C., Iommi M. Intangible capital and growth in advanced economies: measurement methods and comparative results. IZA Discussion Paper No. 6733, July 2012, available at: .
15. Roth F., Thum À. Does intangible capital affect economic growth? CEPS Working Document No. 335, September 2010, available at: .
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18. Landry R., Amara N., Lamari M. Does social capital determine innovation? To what extent? Technological forecasting & social change, 2002, Vol. 69, No. 7, pp. 681–701.
19. Sadri G., Lees B. Developing ñorporate ñulture as a ñompetitive àdvantage. Journal of Management Development, 2001, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp. 853–859, available at: .
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26. Paul B. Institutional capital: a new analytical framework on theory and actions for economic development, available at: .
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28. Postsovetskii Institutsionalizm [Post-Soviet Institutionalism]. R.M. Nureev, V.V. Dement’ev (Eds.). Donetsk, Kashtan, 2005 [in Russian].
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30. Thaler R. Povedinkova Ekonomika. Yak Emotsii Vplyvayut’ na Povedinkovi Rishennya [Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics]. Kyiv, Nash format, 2018 [in Ukrainian].
31. Williamson O.E. Ekonomicheskie Instituty Kapitalizma: Firmy, Rynki, “Otnoshencheskaya” Kontraktatsiya [The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting]. SPb, Lenisdat, 1996 [in Russian].
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34. Shumska S.S. Instrument vyrobnychoi funktsii v doslidzhenni ukrains’koi ekonomiky [The tool of production function in the development of Ukraine’s economy]. Ekonomika i prognozuvannya – Economy and forecasting, 2007, No. 4, pp. 104–123 [in Ukrainian].
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36. Mogilat I., Gorshkova N., Kozhem”yakina S. Produktyvnist’ pratsi, produktyvnist’ kapitalu ta sukupna faktorna produktyvnist’: dynamika i faktory vplyvu na nykh [Labor productivity, capital productivity and aggregate factor productivity: dynamics and factors influencing them]. Ekonomika Ukrainy – Economy of Ukraine, 2009, No. 8, pp. 4–16 [in Ukrainian].
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 The article was received by the Editorial staff on June 11, 2019.
UDC 332.142.4:17.023.2  
M A R I A   I L I N A,
Doctor of Econ. Sci.,
Leading Researcher 
of the Department of Problems of Land and Forest Resources Economy
© Ilina Maria, 2019; 

Y U L I A   S H P Y L I O V A,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Senior Researcher 
of the Department of Problems of Land and Forest Resources Economy
© Shpyliova Yulia, 2019; 

Institute of Environmental Economics 
and Sustainable Development  of the NAS of Ukraine,
60, Taras Shevchenko Blvd., Kyiv, 01032, Ukraine


Low standards of people’s living and economic depression in rural areas in Ukraine make it difficult to achieve the systemic integrity of economic, social and environmental components of the sustainable development. The imbalance between these components causes worsening of the environmental harms and deteriorates conditions for the human capital’s reproduction. The purpose of the article is to substantiate with theoretical and practical means the content and structure of social and ecological imperatives, which are represented as norms and standards relating to economic activities aiming to improve the policy of natural resources use and protect the ecosystem’s integrity of the territories.
Economic imperatives reflect a set of rules applied to all economic entities operating within the current regulatory framework. It takes into account various factors and immanent actions. Key challenges, which are most urgent for a society at a certain time and form guidelines for solving problems of social relations and interactions, determine structure and content of social imperatives. Ecological imperatives regulate anthropogenic activity formally and informally and cause changes in the natural environment. They are dynamic and can vary depending on the level of the development of a society, its technologies, welfare, and institutional framework. Laws and principles of the development, summarized in the form of the imperatives, outline the target benchmarks and national priorities on modernization of the economy and improvement of living standards.
Spatial differentiation of the territories takes into account their proximity to urban centers, the degree of economic capacity, the availability of social infrastructure of the proper quality, and meeting environmental standards. One more significant parameter is the availability of assets, which are defined as a set of resources of a territory, the potential and opportunities for their use. The achievement of the national priorities in Ukraine currently is complicated with inefficient use of territorial assets. Social and ecological imperatives are the solid value and normative ground for the development of local policy. One of its obvious steps is the mutually linked differentiation of the priorities, types of the territories and available assets of them.

Keywords: social-ecological imperative; rural area; economic activity; national priority; asset; spatial differentiation; economic development (ðð. 68–78).
References 15; Figure 1; Table 1.
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2.  Berry T. The Great Work: Our Way into the Future. New York, Bell Tower, 1999. 
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The article was received by the Editorial staff on April 8, 2019.
UDC 331.556:338.246(477)
O L H A   R Y N D Z A K,
Cand. of Econ. Sci.,
Senior Researcher of the Department of Problems
of Social and Humanitarian Development of the Regions
Institute of Regional Research named after M. I. Dolishniy
 of the NAS of Ukraine,
4, Kozelnytska St., Lviv, 79026, Ukraine
© Ryndzak Olha, 2019;


Intensification of migration processes poses new challenges and tasks to the migration policy of Ukraine. One of the most acute problems at present is the mass emigration of the able-bodied population, especially highly educated youth, outside the country. The author’s concept of inhibition (slowing down) of human potential losses is proposed. It involves active migration policy measures in such directions: reduction of the emigration flows, stimulation of the external return migration and strengthening the internal migration of the population. At the same time, the ways of implementing each of these blocks are highlighted. Thus, it is possible to reduce the rate of emigration by regulating its factors. Two of these factors are analyzed: wages and unemployment. The author concludes it is necessary to gradually increase the level of wages, however, not mechanically but accompanied by a set of reforms. Regarding the problems of unemployment, a model of the mechanism for employment stimulation, involving a set of policy measures aimed at all subjects of the labor market, is developed. The stimulation of the external return migration, circular migration, re-immigration and repatriation involves: programs for encouraging and facilitating return and integration; financial, economic and organizational mechanisms for reciprocity provision; assistance in the employment of re-immigrants; pension settlement for circular migrants etc. To intensify internal migration (as a powerful alternative to external), it is necessary: to reduce administrative obstacles on the way of internal movements of the population; to create favorable conditions for realization the right to freedom of movement; to intensify interregional human exchange and cooperation; to develop measures for internal migration stimulation; to improve transport networks. Along with the socio-economic inhibitors, it is also necessary to apply mental factors, which can affect the migration behavior of the population. The author’s proposals, covered in the article, can become the basis for solving the problem of migration losses of human potential and for increasing the efficiency of the migration policy of Ukraine.

Keywords: migration; circular migration; migration policy; wages; employment (ðð. 79–91).
References 16; Figures 2; Table 1.
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The article was received by the Editorial staff on March 13, 2019.

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